Sulfur in the soil is generally in a sulphate form, and microbes change it to sulphide compounds that enter the soil solution and can be taken up by plant roots for growth. This image here shows the sulphur deficiency (left) and Sulphur filled plant
Cadmium that occurs naturally in the environment found at low levels but it can greatly increase to high concentration levels due to the human activity. Most cadmium has been used for manufacturing nickel-cadmium batteries. Paint pigments, stabilizers in many plastics and electroplating industry are also the example function of cadmium. The cadmium present in the atmosphere usually from human activities especially smelting of non-ferrous metal ores, fossil fuel combustion and municipal waste incineration (ATSDR,
The chemical actually has absolutely no benefit to the human body. The National Wildlife Federation states that mercury can “adversely alter the neurological and reproductive systems of humans and wildlife.” (Tolmé 2012) Mercury has the capability of damaging the nervous system including “the nervous system including psychotic reactions, hallucinations, suicidal tendencies and delirium” (Edward 2012) An extended exposure of mercury can cause muscular spasm and can also lead to death. Once mercury enters the body, it is stored in “kidneys, blood, spleen, brain, liver, bones and fatty tissues.” (Edward 2012) The metal also has a big impact on pregnant or nursing women. It can contaminate breast milk and can increase the percentage of neural tube defects by the utero being
Water containing hexavalent chromium was flowing directly into nearby river where is a drinking water source. Chromium is kind of heavy metal pollution. Its chemicla state of +6 is named hexavalent chromium which is identified as carcinogenic by the International Agency
In South China, a study was conducted to analyze the impact of acid rain on two types of soils – the Plinthudult and Paleudalfs soils (Dai 4216). Firstly, acid rain reduces the soil fertility of all soils due to all of the toxic metal ions present, as well as the soil’s resulting nutrient deficiency. However, this study led to the finding that the extent to which acid rain affects soil can be attributed to the soil’s chemical composition. For instance, the Plinthudult soil can be found in areas where there is heavy rainfall. Because of this, the Plinthudult soil “contains large proportions of 1:1 – type clay minerals and hydrous oxides of iron and aluminum,” which makes it more susceptible to fluctuations in pH.
Under saline conditions, the occurrence of high concentrations of soluble salts or high exchangeable sodium (ESP>15% with pH>8.5) interferes with the growth and development process. The water in saline soils is less readily available to plants due to increased osmotic potential, leading to a physiological water stress. On the other hand, the excessive uptake of Na+ and Cl- results in nutrient imbalance and may cause ion toxicity in plants. Due to salt stress, there will be production of reactive oxygen species which cause oxidative damage and ultimately leading to cell injury (Sairam et al., 2002). Salt stress also cause reduction in protein synthesis and nucleic acid metabolism (Boyer, 1965; Kaiser,1987), decrease in uptake of K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ followed by decrease in growth at higher sodium concentration (Poonia,1972).
The oxides are then transported throughout the atmosphere. When the oxides make contact with the water, a chemical reaction happens. For the examples, when combined with water the oxides form carbonic acids, nitric acid and sulfuric acid. This means that the pH of rain is lower and the acidity is higher. Acid rainfall is harmful to forests, lakes, streams, buildings and other objects and can cause certain health problems.
When these pollutants are dissolved in water during rain it forms various acids. The chemical reaction that results in the formation of acid rain is as following; CO2+H2O → H2CO3 (carbonic acid) SO2+H2O → H2SO3 (sulfurous acid) NO2+H2O → HNO2 (nitrous acid)+HNO3 (nitric acid)