Recently, researchers did an experiment which include the screening of chemical substance that will treat the disease and also the information from the genomic used to create a drugs for people who have specific genetic data. In developmental process, there were some drugs that were left before and pharmacogenomics used these drugs back. For example, Gencaro is an improvement of β-blocker drug bucindolol which prohibited by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) because of this substance can lead to heart failure. But after several tests, Gencaro shows that the drugs work effectively in heart function in two different
For example, the forward scatter parameter reduces on cell shrinkage while nuclear condensation causes an increase in side scatter. Apoptotic cells can also be detected using hematoxylin and eosin staining, using light microscopy. Although this is a simple technique, it cannot detect apoptotic cells in early stages and the technique needs to be supplemented with other methods of detection. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is considered as the gold standard to confirm apoptosis. TEM can detect apoptotic bodies, phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies and nuclear fragmentation among other changes.
The third principle in the cell theory states that all cells arise from pre-existing cells. Cells are able to do this through the cell cycle. Every cells goes through this process, some more than others. The stages of the cell cycle are the G1, or Gap Phase 1, S phases, or Synthesis Phase, G2, or Gap Phase 2, the Mitosis phase, and the last phase, cytokinesis. There is also a G0 or Gap Phase 0, which occurs in nerve and muscle cells.
The instructions for the order of amino acids are made by the genes in an organisms cell. A process called DNA transcription makes up the sequence of the amino acids and then a specific protein is produced. Each protein structure has a specific function in it. Changing the structure will then change its function since it rearranges everything in the protein structure. Proteins are there for an essential part of the body, since it helps form body tissues, like muscles, organs and is used within many biological processes as well.
Gene transfer is to transfer a gene from one DNA molecule to another DNA molecule. Gene transfer represents a relatively new possibility for the treatment of rare genetic disorders and common multifactorial diseases by changing the expression of a person's genes. In 1928, Griffith reported that a nonpathogenic pneumoccocus strain could become pathogenic when it was mixed with cells of heat-killed pathogenic pneumoccocus, which suggested that the pathogenic genetic material could be transformed from the heat-killed pathogenic pneumoccocus to the nonpathogenic strain (Griffith, 1928). This is the first report for gene transfer observation. However, the transforming substance was not identified in these experiments.
To transfer genes, scientists use yeast cells instead of bacteria because yeast cells are eukaryotic and they can translate genes from other eukaryotes. To transfer DNA, a vector is used in genetic engineering is a carrier. Bacteria contain vectors called plasmids, which are small circular pieces of DNA within the bacteria. An example in medicine would be diabetes. Before genetic engineering was common, doctor’s cures diabetes with animal insulin obtained from farm animals, but that used to cause allergic reactions in some patients.
Describe the processes of mitosis and meiosis in details and their functions Introduction Cell division does not stop with the formation of the mature organism but continues in certain tissues throughout life. It is because cell cannot grow any larger. Besides, cell division is necessary for the repair and replacement of aged or dead cells. Moreover, it is necessary for the growth and reproduction. There are two distinct types of eukaryotic cell division: Mitosis and Meiosis.
• The mitotic (M) phase, divides the cell DNA into two sets and its cytoplasm, forming two new cells. INTERPHASE A cell forms, by division of its mother cell. The preparation for division happens in three steps: • G1 phase- During G1 also called the first gap phase, the cell grows physically larger, copies organelles, and makes the
In order for vaccines to work appropriately, they have to operate in a very convoluted way to make sure they live up to their standards. 1. Vaccines are developed by using the bacteria’s specimen that has been either killed or damaged which are dissolved in a solution. When the vaccine is injected into the body, the specimen revives that person’s immune system. After being injected, the immune system will now fight against the microbe by forming antibodies.
They may also be prepared from amphiphilic ionic molecules which are negatively charged or positively charged stearylamine. Niosomes are very much like liposomes in their physical characteristics but they differ in their chemical compositions. Niosomes in the form of micelles or vesicles can be used as carriers for the transport of drugs such as anticancer and topical preparations. Anticancer niosomes do accumulate in tumor cells and are mostly taken up by the liver therefore they can be used as drug delivery vehicles to the liver and spleen. Antigens were formulated as niosomes in water in oil emulsions which increases the activity of the antigens due it's controlled release
SRT1720 Description: EC50: 0.16 μM SRT1720 is a selective activator of SIRT1. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies using various cancer cell models show the role of SIRT1 either as an oncogene or a tumour suppressor gene. The oncogenic potential of SIRT1 is exemplified by studies indicating that blockade of SIRT1, like other HDACs, triggers growth arrest and apoptosis in breast, colon and lung cancers. In vitro: Treatment of MM cells with SRT1720 inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in MM cells resistant to bortezomib therapy without significantly affecting the viability of normal cells. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that anti-MM activity of SRT1720 is associated with activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, poly(ADP) ribose