Synthesis Of Caffeine

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Introduction The cell cycle is crucial to many mechanisms that exist in living things today such as the repairing of damaged cells, the growth of living things, and many others mechanisms. Within the cell cycle, there are sub-mechanisms that allow this process to perform its duty. There are two major growth phases, also called the G₁ and G₂ phases. When cells reach these two phases, they experience growth until they are large enough to continue to the next phase. After the first major growth phase comes the synthesis phase, in which is where a cell enters and its DNA is replicated. Towards the end of the cell cycle are three cell-dividing mechanisms called meiosis, mitosis, and cytokinesis. These three mechanisms allow for the cell to evenly…show more content…
Many medications within pharmacies and stores also contain caffeine. (Gabrielli et al., 2006) Furthermore, since caffeine has been known to have many uses, researchers all over the world have been studying caffeine in relation to medications, food, the cell cycle, etc. Some researchers claim that caffeine has the ability to end cell proliferation, to prevent chemical-induced delays in the cell cycle, and also to improve anti-cancer agents. Many other studies also suggest that caffeine can be used to repudiate any DNA damage that occurs in the second major growth phase of the cell cycle. (Gabrielli et al., 2006) Furthermore, caffeine is known to have some influence on the cell cycle. Many researchers have performed studies that relate caffeine to cell death, in which refers to the preventing of cells from continuing through the cell cycle properly. (Pardee & Schlegel, 1986) Caffeine also causes cell arrest, or the capturing of a cell within a single phase in the cell cycle and causing it to die there. Besides having effects on the cell cycle, researchers also suggest that caffeine has the ability to enhance anticancer drugs. (Wang et al.,…show more content…
The two researchers also related their research to a similar research by a scientist named Nishimoto. According to Nishimoto, he suggests that a mutant, called the ts BN-2 mutant, can experience premature chromosome condensation and many other different early mitotic events under specific conditions. (Schlegel & Pardee, 1986) In Schlegel and Pardee’s experiment, they created figures that helped to illustrate the “grinded” appearance of their caffeine-induced process. They also explain that this “grinded” appearance was also observed in the premature chromosome condensation, or PCC, of synthesis phase cells, in which were claimed to have been combined with other cells in mitosis. (Schlegel & Pardee, 1986) Furthermore, their research suggests that a process, called indirect immunofluorescence, was able to produce phosphoproteins. DNA replication was also said to have stopped in the synthesis phase cells before caffeine had the ability to start premature chromosome condensation. Pardee and Schlegel further explained how caffeine has the ability to reverse the restricting of DNA synthesis, in which results from the research with two drugs called hydroxyurea and aphidicolin. They used these two drugs to relate to the essentialness of DNA synthesis inhibition to premature chromosome condensation. (Schlegel & Pardee, 1986) In

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