The partitioning of scattering spectra into contributions by phytoplankton, suspended sediments is thereby very important. Since the scattering coefficient is influenced by size, shape and Refractive Index of the material, all these information is contained in the scattering spectra. Extracting the composition of the constituents from scattering coefficients is a continuing problem in ocean color studies. Scattering property determines how light is radiated through a water column and thus it helps in processing, analyzing and retrieving useful information from the remotely observed satellite data (Snyder et al, 2008) and it can indicate the shape features and composition of suspended matter in water. The inference of remote sensing reflectance requires information about Inherent optical properties such as scattering, backscattering, absorption, and attenuation.
ABSTRACT The resistivity is a very important property to consider in a drilling fluid. The measurement of resistivity gives us adequate information to know on the concentration of soluble salts. Resistivity is measured by placing the sample in a resistive container having two electrodes spaced so that electrical current can flow through the sample. The main aim of this experiment is to determine the resistivity of the mud sample, the effect of the additives on the mud and then take the measurement using the Analog Resistivity meter. The results were observed and recorded.
Pontoon’s uses buoyancy to support the bridge. It is important to take into consideration the Archimedes principle in obtaining the maximum load the bridge is intended to carry. Every pontoon can support a heap equivalent to the mass of the water that it displaces, however this load additionally incorporates the mass of the extension itself. On the off chance that the highest load of an extension segment is surpassed, one or more pontoon gets to be submerged and will continue to sink. The roadway over the pontoon should likewise have the capacity to bolster the load, yet be sufficiently light not to constrain their conveying
According to old Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, and the more accurate Sogami-Ise theory, 16, 17 The agglomeration and the stability of particle dispersions are determined by the sum of the attractive and repulsive forces between the individual particles. And also it suggest that higher ionic strength of the electrolyte solution diminish interparticle repulsion due to the attractive Van der Waals force, which indicates that the above hydrodynamic diameter of the CeO2 nanoparticles dispersed in a water medium is due to the dominant attractive force over the electrostatic repulsive force, resulting in a highly agglomerated particles, in which case the particle surface charge (Zeta potential) have been noticed that 39.91 mV at pH 6. Similarly, agglomerated particles were appeared in CeO2 nanoparticles dispersed in an ethanol medium but slightly increasing hydrodynamic diameter approximately 250 nm, with decreasing zeta potential (36.54 mV) was measured at pH 6, resulting that an increase in the ionic strength owing to the compression of the electrical double layer decrease their zeta potential, and therefore promote agglomeration.
Lastly, ship is also a good example of Archimedes Principle. A ship is able to float on the surface of the sea because the weight of water displaced by the ship equals to the weight of the ship. The reason why a ship is constructed in a hollow shape is to ensure that the ship is less dense than the sea water. Thus, the buoyant force acting on the ship is large to support the weight of the ship. However, the density of sea water varies.
The important results from the Saint–Venant torsion  theory can be summarized in terms of stress function as below. General torsion equation is …..3.1 Where, G is the shear modulus and θ is the angle of twist. Boundary condition: ∅ = 0 on a boundary …..3.2 By using 3.1 and 3.2 we can get torque T as follows …..3.3 L Prandtl  introduced membrane analogy to solve torsional problem. In case of narrow rectangular cross section this analogy gives very simple solution as provided by equation 3.3. Maximum shear stress …..3.4 In which b is the longer side and c the shorter side of the rectangular cross section and α is a numerical factor depends on ratio of b/c.
Introduction Capacitive technique is an electromagnetic method which is able to measure water content of a material. Since moisture is a common cause of the pathology of reinforced concrete, it is essential to assess the water content in concrete. Once the water content is determined, the corrosion risk of reinforcement can be estimated. The following paragraphs will first describe the theory of this technique then to its application in structural health monitoring (SHM) with a case study. The principle The principle of capacitive sensors is to measure the changes in capacitance.
Seismic attributes are used to interpret both 3D and 4D seismic surveys qualitatively and quantitatively. Attribute analysis is especially effective in Malaysian basins since seismic reflection data from these basins are of high quality, with broad bandwidth, and minimal noise (seismic attributes addint part 2 deva). In seismic interpretation, a reflection is generally characterized by its arrival time and its reflection strength i.e. amplitude (seismic attributes adding a new dimension, deva). In terms of its wave component, it can be represented by three important variables namely amplitude, phase, and frequency (deva, attributes).
It is valid only for long and slender columns. When this formula is used for columns of lesser length then the critical stress value exceeds the yield strength of the material. Obviously, Euler’s solution is of no interest under these considerations. Johnsons solution for buckling of intermediate columns: For very short columns, the column will not buckle but simply compress. Failure will then be due to yielding of material.
Then the solitary waves solutions are assumed to be in the form of u(x,t) = f (x-ct) Where c is the speed of the waves propagation. Nonlinear equations unlike the linear equations are related to the phenomena which are changed qualitatively as the excitations are altered. Thus, adding two actions/particles of the nonlinear equations results in adding new effects that were not there in the original actions/particles. It is worth mentioning that understanding the lineal behavior of the waves is essential to understand the non-linear behavior. Linear waves in general have the following characteristics: Both the shape and the velocity of the linear wave are independent of the amplitude The sum of two linear waves is also linear Small amplitude waves are linear, and they become nonlinear as the amplitude gets larger