Soap will therefore be much more effective in soft water than in hard water. The steps for the saponification soap making method can therefore be simplified into four: • Saponification: The fat and oil is mixed with the alkali and heated. The soap produced is the salt of a long chain carboxylic acid. • Glycerine removal: Saturated salt solution is added to dissolve the glycerine in the wet soap. A greater part of the glycerine is removed and separated from the soap whiles the other part remains to smoothen and soften the soap.
Sodium carbonate, known for being found in soaps in glass, is soluble when mixed with water. When in its pure form, it is a white, odorless powder that can absorb moisture from the air (Sodium). On the other hand, calcium chloride can be used to melt ice on the roads, control dust, and act as a preservative for foods. It too rapidly absorbs water, but is a crystalline, lumpy or flaky texture that is usually white and quite soluble in water (Calcium). To understand this lab completely, it is important to know the concepts limiting and excess reactant.
Blank solution and oil solution were prepared and stored in the dark. Then, they were titrated with Na2S2O3 and volume of titrant was determined for blank and oil solution. Finally, iodine value was determined by using volumeaof titrant. B) Determination of Peroxide Value In this experiment, peroxide value of sunflower oil was tried to determine. After preparing a solvent mixture, it was titrated with sodium thiosulphate but during titration time color change was not observed.
ABSTRACT The experiment aims to find the concentration of acetic acid in the vinegar sample by titrating it to a standardized NaOH solution, a base solution. A standardized 0.100 M NaOH solution was prepared from an available concentration of NaOH specifically a 1.00 M NaOH. The volume of the standardized solution (titrant) used which is 0.100 L was calculated using the M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 relationship. It was then gradually added to the vinegar solution until the acid-base reaction was completely neutralized. To regulate the reaction, phenolphthalein, an acid-base indicator, was added beforehand to the vinegar (analyte).
Present use of calcium carbonate in pharmaceutical field Calcium carbonate is most commonly used in the pharmaceutical field as an active ingredient in the formulation of antacids, because it neutralizes acid rapidly, effectively and inexpensively. Calcium-based antacids are available in a wide range of preparations: tablets, liquids, soft gels, effervescent tablets and chewing gums. In the case of hypocalcaemia, calcium carbonate is used in human food as a calcium supplement, especially in osteoporosis treatment, and in cosmetology as an excipient for the preparation of tooth pastes and beauty creams. Several other pharmaceutical applications depend on its high calcium content (40% elemental calcium) and adsorbing power, especially when used in powders with a high surface area of particles, as well as due to its ability to act as a less expensive filler and
Skincare Glossary Alpha Hydroxy Acid (AHA) : A chemical exfoliant commonly used in cosmetic products in order to remove dead skin cells, treat acne, smooth and firm the skin, and reduce the appearance of acne scars. Examples of AHAs are : glycolic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid, tartaric acid, and etc. Bentonite : A ingredient that forms due to the breakdown of volcanic ash. Masks often contain this so it can be used all over the face in order to assist in normalizing oily skin. It can also help eliminate oil that blogs pores and reduce enlarged pores.
This could have contaminated the different antacid brands, which may have affected the results from changing the end result of the pH level. Also, another factor that could have affected the results that some of the antacids crushed were not in a very fine powder resulting in the tablets not dissolving To improve this experiment, different mortar and pestles could be used so the antacids are not contaminated. Also, the antacids could have been crushed finer so they could dissolve easier and quicker in HCl. Another way to make the experiment even more accurate is if all of the solutions in stomach acid was used including Hydrochloric acid, (HCl) Potassium Chloride, (KCl) and Sodium Chloride (NaCl). By mimicking the exact factors and percentages of them the experiment could be even more accurate.
The activation energy was calculated from the slope (Ea/RT) by linear plot of ln k on l/T, using the Arrhenius equation k = ln A- Ea/RT, where k is rate constant of the reaction at temperature T (in Kelvin), A is a constant and R is the universal gas constant. The catalytic reduction of 4-NP was studied at six different temperatures (25, 30, 35, 45, 55, 65 and 70oC) using olibanum gum capped AuNPs as catalyst. A linear relationship was found between ln k and the reciprocal temperature from which the activation energy was measured. A plot of ln k versus 1/T, shown in Figure. 10, is a linear curve for 4-NP reduction using AuNPs.
Acid value is the value that indicate the amount of FFA present in a particular substance. Which defined as the number of miligrams of KOH required to neutralize the free acids in 1 g sample, is the measure of FFA content. The FFA content used to determine the FFA content that found in oil. DISCUSSION Discussion question 1. What are the relationship between FFA, hydrolysis and oxidation?
It can also be used as a raw material for tooth powder , toothpaste and other cosmetics. Rolaids® is a trade name for calcium carbonate,for fast and effective relief of heartburn associated with excess stomach acid. Tums® is another antacid made of sucrose (sugar) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) which Aylward, Gordon; Findlay, Tristan (2008). . John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-470-81638-7.