Hence, a calcium chloride and cotton were filled inside a drying tube. The condenser was wrapped with parafilm and a paper towel to avoid moistures from entering. The reagent will act as nucleophilic addition to acetone and work up with hydrochloride acid to synthesize 2-methylhexanol. Throughout this process, the solution turns dark grey and develop white precipitates. This step indicate that Grignard reagent was generated, and the extra white precipitates were magnesium.
Purification of brine The first step in the Solvay process is brine purification. This step is done to produce a pure sodium chloride solution. Brine contains impurities namely calcium and magnesium salts. Sulfates also can be found in some brines. These impurities have to be eliminated because they will produce unwanted insoluble salts by reacting with alkali and carbon dioxide, thus affecting the quality of the soda ash.
The solution is then added with NaOH to neutralize the acidity of the solution. Sodium hydroxide is necessary for neutralization as the reduction of the copper(II) ions will not take place in acidic conditions (with present of excess acids). After that, Benedict’s test is carried out by using Benedict’s reagent and heated. At this state, the solution is dark blue in color. Benedict's reagent is an alkaline solution containing Cu(II) ions, which oxidize the aldehyde to a carboxylic acid.
Ac 2.3 Explain the method of making titanium alloy and investigate how the composition and structure of metal alloys, polymers and poly-matrix composites influence the properties of the parent material. 1. Extraction of Titanium Titanium is extracted from its ore rutile-tio2. It is first converted into titanium (5) chlorine, which is then reduced to titanium using either magnesium or sodium. The ore rutile is heated with chlorine and coke at a temperature of about 1000˚c.
3.19.5 PROCEDURE: To etch 1 kg of copper, 5.1 kg of Ferric Chloride is consumed. In order to increase the copper dissolving capacity and to bring the etching time slightly down, often HCL is added. HCL acts simultaneously against excessive sludge formation. After etching is over the Ferric Chloride contained surface should be first cleaned by spraying water, which is not enough. Then we dip it in a 5% (by volume) in the solution of oxalic acid to remove iron and copper salt sand final water rinsed vigorously.
For example, M2+ +Ca(OH)2←⎯⎯⎯⎯→M(OH)2 +Ca2+ ……………………. (11) This reaction suggests the use of lime to precipitate the metal as hydroxide. Chromium is precipitated as hydroxide. Cr3+ +3(OH−) → Cr(OH)3 ……………………. (12) Sodium carbonate also has been used to precipitate metals as hydroxides (Fe(OH)3•XH2O), carbonates (CdCO3), basic carbonate salts
Tungsten Carbide is a compound synthesized by the reaction of tungsten (metal) powder and carbon black (carbon powder) at temperatures of 2600° - 2700° F. Tungsten has a chemical symbol "W" which comes from the name "Wolfram" and that is how it is known in Europe. There are a total of thirteen tungsten containing ores of which four types are the most abundant. These are: Wolframite - FeMn(WO 4 ) 2 Scheelite - CaWO 3 Ferberite - FeWO 4 Hubnerite - MnWO 4 The thirteen tungsten containing ores are in combinations with eight elements which are manganese, calcium, iron, copper, aluminum, lead, sulphur and zinc. The two most abundant and widely used ores are Wolframite and Scheelite. In processing Wolframite the tungsten contained is first converted
This means that acid-base titration was stopped when the faint permanent pink colouration was formed. When there are enough sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution being added to react with all the hydronium ions (H3O+), the next drop of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) will provided an excess amount of hydroxide ions, OH- ions and a basic solution was formed. Then, the excess present of hydroxide ions (OH-) will react with the hydronium ions (H3O+) to form water. This will shifts the equilibrium to the right because water is being formed and hydronium ions (H3O+) are being removed. This also indicated that all the hydronium ions (H3O+) and hydroxide ions (OH-) present in the solution had been successfully neutralized and reached the end point of the titration reaction.
What is Saponification? Saponification is the procedure that produces soap from fats and lye. In this chemical reaction we used Sodium Hydroxide which is our base to convert fats or oil as an acid to soap, this happens when the fats or oil gets in touch with Sodium Hydroxide or lye and this turns on the Saponification process. When the Saponification process is turned on, it means lye is converting the oil or the fat to a more uniform and thicker solution, it is having a point which is called Trace point. Trace point the end point, if we add any extra material it will not be chemically mixed with our soap solution it will just stay there.