PREPARATION AND USES OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE, BLEACHING POWDER, BAKING POWDER, WASHING SODA Objective: To understand the use of common salt (NaCl) for preparation of chemicals such as Sodium hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking powder, Washing soda. The common salt (Chemical formula-NaCl, Chemical name- Sodium chloride) that we eat in our daily diet is the raw material for preparation of chemical compounds such as Sodium hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking powder, Washing soda. NaCl is a neutral salt. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) also known as caustic soda is formed when electricity is passed through Brine [aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl)] .This process is known as chlor-alkali process (Chlor for chlorine and alkali for NaOH). Hydrogen gas
Water will act as initial solvent for caffeine extraction. This is due to water that slowly soluble with caffeine at ambient temperature but highly soluble when temperature is at 100°C. Then, methylene chloride is chosen as the extraction solvent, due to its miscibility with caffeine and immiscibility with water. As mentioned above, the immiscible pair is chose for the extraction part because to allow the aqueous and organic layers to be separated. Basically, the bottom layer is the aqueous layer while the upper layer is the organic compound.
Wash ether layer with saturated sodium chloride solution and retain ether layer. In a small 125ml Erlenmeyer flask, dry the ether solution over anhydrous calcium chloride. Add sufficient calcium chloride so that it no longer clumps to pellets added earlier on the bottom of the flask. Remove the solvent using a rotary evaporator and weigh product. Results 1 mole of benzoic acid (C6H5COOH = 122.12grams) reacts with 1 mole of methanol (CH3OH = 32grams/mole) to produce 1 mole of methyl benzoate (C6H5COOCH3 = 136.15grams) and 1 mole of water.
Exercise 1 1. Suppose a household product label says it contains sodium hydrogen carbonate (sodium bicarbonate). Using your results from Data Table 1 as a guide, how would you test this material for the presence of sodium bicarbonate? B BoldI ItalicsU Underline Bulleted list Numbered list Superscript Subscript33 Words If I had a household product labeled sodium bicarbonate, I would add an acidic substance and expect bubble to be created. As we know acid reacts with bubbles when combined with sodium bicarbonate.
Confirmation tests for mercuric chloride: 1- After adding stannous chloride, gray precipitate will be formed: 2HgCl2 + SnCl2 → Hg2Cl2↓ (white ppt) + SnCl4 Hg2Cl2↓ + SnCl2→ 2HgO ↓ (black ppt) + SnCl4 2- Add potassium iodide, scarlet red precipitate is obtained and it's soluble in excess Iodide: Hg2+ + 2I- → HgI2↓ HgI2↓ + 2I- → [HgI4] Special reactions of HgCl2: 1- Yellow precipitate of HgO is obtained when it reacts with NaOH: Hg2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) --> HgO(s) + H2O(l) HgCl2(s) + 2OH-(aq) --> HgO(s) + H2O(l) +
The active ingredients in the alka seltzer tablet are “As the tablets dissolve, the sodium bicarbonate splits apart to form sodium and bicarbonate ions. The bicarbonate ions react with hydrogen ions from the citric acid to form carbon dioxide gas (and water). This is how the bubbles are made.”(Scientific American) These bubbles are representative of a chemical change and the resulting carbon dioxide should increase the water 's density. This may actually increase the volume of the water taking longer to boil, this difference may be minuscule, even negligible, but there 's a possibility for distinct change in results. This scientific American puts it best “For the reaction to occur,
Make sure that you completely cover the egg with vinegar. If the egg begins to float, be sure to have enough vinegar in the cup to mostly cover the egg. Once this is done you will have to wait for the acetic acid in the vinegar to react with the calcium on the egg shell. You will begin to see bubbles begin to form on the egg shell. These bubbles are made because the reaction is causing carbon dioxide to be released.
Bubbles are produced continuously from the time the tablet enters the water until the time when the reaction between sodium bicarbonate and citric acid ceases. The disappearance of bubbles can be used as a qualitative indicator for the completion of the chemical reaction and the production of the sodium citrate solution. The chemicals in the final solution are sodium bicarbonate, and citric acid, to make a sodium citrate solution. The solute is the Alka-Seltzer tablet and the solvent is the
The specific surface area is between 6.21 and 6.47 m2/g and has a specific gravity of 2.7. Calcium carbonate is prepared through double decomposition of calcium chloride and sodium bicarbonate in an aqueous solution. Density and fineness are governed by the concentrations of the solutions. Calcium carbonate is also obtained from the naturally occurring minerals aragonite, calcite, and vaterite. The particles of calcium carbonate are characterized, finally, by cohesive fluidity.
The difference in this chemical and physical properties will aid in their separation. Processes like solubility, gravitational filtration and recrystallization will be used to separate the substances present in Panacetin. The melting and boiling point of the substances will help in concluding on which of these compounds will be presented at the end of experiment. Procedure and observation The Panacetin content was weighed approximately 3.0493g and transferred to the Erlenmeyer flask; 75ml of dichloromethane (CH¬2CL2) was added to the content. The dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) dissolved the sucrose, leaving the active unknown agent and aspirin behind.