Surgery Advantages And Disadvantages

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2. APPROACHES TO TREAT CANCER AND NEED OF INNOVATIVE THERAPEUTIC STRATEGIES
Cancer as a disease has been known since long ago and various researchers have tried numerous therapeutic strategies as treatment approaches. Till date rate of occurrence as well as death rates are very high for this disease. Approaches used and are being used include surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy and adjuvant therapy. All these strategies have their own advantages and limitations. Surgery is known to be the most ancient technique for treating cancer. Surgeons like Paget and Bilroth from 1846 reported the tendency of reoccurrence even after surgical removal along with lymph nodes. Emergence of new techniques for effective imaging like sonography, computed tomography (CT scans), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans) and positron emission tomography (PET scans) have made the thing easier (9). Now-a-days less invasive surgical techniques are in use for the treatment of cancer due to the advances in field of science like laser have been tried for removal of tumor tissues in case of cervix, larynx, rectum, skin and various other organs (10). Surgery is most effective in case of primary localized cancers and is known to be the most efficient therapy when used alone as compared to all other therapies. Besides surgery which allows 100 %
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TUMOR MICROENVIRONMENT: AN UNIQUE APPROACH TO TARGET RESILIANT CANCERS
As previously described cancer stromal cells have physiology of normal body cells but due to the paracrine signaling with cancer cells, these cells of normal type start behaving in a manner that is well supportive for the continuous growth of cancer cells. Tumor associated cells in their dysfunction conditions start releasing cytokines and growth factors along with enrollment of other cells like mesenchymal stem cells which further restock cancer cells and support their growth (24).
3.1. Hypoxia

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