In this method antibodies that are strongly attracted to proteins produced in one type of breast cancer cell are attached to nanotubes, causing the nanotubes to accumulate at the tumor. Infrared light from a laser is absorbed by the nanotubes and produces heat that incinerates the tumor Nanotechnology in Medicine Application: Diagnostic Techniques Researchers at Worcester Polytechnic Institute are using antibodies attached to carbon nanotubes in chips to detect cancer cells in the blood stream. The researchers believe this method could be used in simple lab tests that could provide early detection of cancer cells in the bloodstream. A test for early detection of kidney damage is being developed. The method uses gold nanorods functionalized to attach to the type of protein generated by damaged kidneys.
They are the result of deficiencies in DNA repair, endogenous and exogenous exposure to carcinogens, and enzymatic alterations in DNA. Endogenous means that the exposure originated inside the body while exogenous means that the exposure to carcinogens originated from outside the body. Normal and regulatory genes are the most common target of genetic damage (The Importance of Genetic Testing in Cancer 1). After years of testing, officials have been able to clarify genetic predisposition as well as learn more about cancer cells. Because of research and testing, there are 500 known genes involved in cancer development.
Radiation therapy is another type of brain tumor treatment. Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy x-rays or other particles to destroy cancer cells. Radiation therapy is used to stop or slow the growth of the tumor. It is usually given after surgery along with chemotherapy
These radiopharmaceuticals are used in three main different medical procedures. They can be used to diagnose patients by the patient ingesting radioactive materials and then these materials emit radiation in the form of alpha or beta particles in the affected areas, these areas can be seen to doctors on different imaging tests and screens. This works best with the thyroid, heart, liver, and many other organs. Another way that radiation can be used in medicine is when treating patients by destroying or shrinking malfunctioning cells. The organ can be exposed to a particular isotope which will then destroy the bad cells.
DCA attacks the cancer cells and make their energy throughout the main body of the cell. This process is known glycosis (3). It is assumed that cancer cells used glycolysis because their mitochondria was damaged, but according to Michelakis’ experiment says that this isn’t the case because the DCA awakened the mitochondria in cancer cells and the cells became very dry and died.
Drug is a natural or synthetic chemical agent that used in medication to diagnosis, treatment or prevention of disease and can affect how the cell and tissue functioning. One of the most important theory in drugs is the germ theory of disease, developed by Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur. This theory suggests that there are many diseases are produced by the existence and actions from specific micro- organisms inside the body. To proof the theory, they led the research and development of “Magic Bullets” and recruited Paul Ehrlich along the way. Paul Ehrlich (1854- 1915) was a German scientist who worked in field of immunology, hematology and chemotherapy.
In Somatic gene therapy inserted genetic material to the target cells, does not pass on the change to the next generation. In comparison the opposite is true for Germ line gene therapy. Due to this evident difference, current regulations allows gene therapy only on somatic cells.1 There are two lines of treatment applications for gene therapy, one for the treatment of genetic diseases and the other for non-genetic and polygenic disorders.3 Two different approaches to administer gene therapy to patients exist. “In vivo” which involves a therapeutic gene being administered directly via a vector into the tissue of the patient. This vector interacts with the target protein to produce the required therapeutic protein.
 Discussion: Cancer is defined as abnormal growth of cells which tend to multiply in an uncontrolled way. Virchow proposed chronic irritation theory, which stated that chronic irritation was the cause of cancer. He believed inaccurately that cancers “spread like a liquid.” A German surgeon in the 1860s, Karl Thiersch, presented that cancers metastasize through the spreading of malignant cells and not through some undisclosed fluid.
There are many types of antibiotics , and I will write about some of them. Some antibiotics enter the body immediately and attack the DNA in the bacteria. As we know, every organism has cells, and one of the most important in these cells is DNA, because it controls everything inside the cell, so it will be very effective in attacking DNA inside the cells. After that, the bacteria can not survive, so we will have gotten rid of it. In this situation, we have two ways to attack DNA.
Stem Cell therapy could be a cure for cancer. Stem cell therapy ensures that cells lost due to chemotherapy can be regenerated faster and so increased doses of chemotherapy can be administered to cancer patients. These patients can therefore have a better chance of getting rid of all cancer cells and allow for them to recover faster. Stem cells are cells that are unspecialised, that can divide and that are able to differentiate into a specialised cell or tissue with a specific function (KUUN, L. and NORTJIE, S). The source National Cancer Institute (2015) defines cancer as the name given to a collection of related diseases, where the body’s cells begin to divide without stopping and can spread into surrounding tissues.