It is given the powerful role of autophagy in tumor suppression. It specifically involves pathogens and other non-host entities. Autophagy permits the process of degrading and reusing of cellular components. Throughout this process, aimed cytoplasmic constituents are detached from the rest of the cell within a double-membraned vesicle recognized as an autophagosome. Proteins can undergo the process of degrading by the proteasome or by lysosomes.
In a healthy adult human, billions of cells die in the bone morrow and intestine every hour. In some cases apoptosis helps regulate cell number. The apoptotic bodies produced from dying or injured cells (due to damage or toxins) are quickly removed before they can spill out their cellular contents. This avoids inflammation of surrounding
CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Cancer or cancer chemotherapy Cancer is abnormal growth of cell division that has potential to spread to other body cells. There are two types of cancers. One is the benign cancer don’t spread to other body cells and malignant cancer can spread to other body cells. Cancer chemotherapy is the branch of medical oncology and used for the treatment of cancer. The principle of chemotherapy is that by using of chemotherapeutic agents or drugs, cancer cells can be removed.
During neuronal development many neurons die to match the number of targets cells that require innervation. Also in adult human billions of cells in the bone marrow and intestine die each day. Apoptosis also occurs during DNA damage and different stresses, if the damage is high enough. This allows organism to get rid of nonfunctioning cells and it prevents the development of cancer by removing cell with potentially cancer-promoting mutations. In apoptosis cells die without bursting or causing inflammation reaction.
SOPHIA COLLEGE Protein-DNA Interaction MAYUR GAIKWAD 05/05/2015 INTRODUCTION Protein–DNA interactions play a major role in all fields of genetics from regulation and transcription of individual genes to repair of damaged sequences, even to the stabilization of DNA in chromatin and the replication of entire genomes. It is estimated that 2–3% of prokaryotic and 6–7% of eukaryotic genes code for DNA-binding proteins. Additionally, many of these proteins do not merely bind DNA, but also interact with other proteins and sometimes, as is shown in the example of RNA polymerase, only display theirfull activity when organized in multimeric complexes. SEQUENCE-SPECIFIC DNA BINDING Protein recognition of specific sequences on the DNA double
This spreading may continue very gradually during several months or years. Even though these malignancies do not metastasize. They can invade underlying tissues, and death can result from complications such as infection or hemorrhage from encroaching into a blood vessel. Small lesions can be removed under local anesthesia in a doctor’s office. Larger lesions respond well to radiation therapy.
Gene therapy is now considered a new therapeutic area of study in modern medicine. Genes are special segments of DNA that provide the information to the body to properly function. It involves the transfer of genetic information into the tissues and organs of patients. As a result, it can be used to eliminate diseased genes or restore their normal functions. Another application of gene therapy involves the inclusion of different function to the cells, in order to either fight cancer or other diseases.
The applications were limited to a few areas of the body, such as eye tumours and head-neck tumours, since those accelerators were not designed for the treatment of patients and the energy was too low to treat deep-seated tumours. However, this pioneering work opened the way for clinical and technological developments of this discipline and a milestone was achieved when in 1990 the first patient was treated at the Loma Linda University Medical Center in California, the first hospital based proton therapy centre . Until 2013, more than 100 000 patients were treated with proton therapy worldwide . Radiation therapy works by overwhelming the capacity of the cell to repair DNA damage, resulting in cell death. Cells that are rapidly dividing, typically cancer cells, are affected most.
Cell division and reproduction is vital for life. Without cell division, all living organisms would be incapable of reproducing or healing themselves. There are mainly two different types of cellular division: mitosis and meiosis. These processes are crucial to most organisms, and have many different functions. Mitosis allow organisms to grow and to replenish cells.
This leaves us with concerns about whether these processes are ethically correct and whether it is appropriate to use these organisms as a means of producing things such as pharmaceuticals. Through editing an organism’s DNA that organism can adapt a new trait. By changing the genotype of the organism, the physical outward appearance —or its phenotype—can also be altered. Under the correct circumstances, a new gene can be added into the DNA of a cell; this gene will be transcribed and translated into an amino acid string. Scientists use this type of technology to produce things like antibodies, insulin and