Causes Of Bladder Cancer

1401 Words6 Pages
Cancer is not one disease, but it is a large group of almost 100 diseases. It is characterized by uncontrolled growth of the cells in the human body and by the ability of these cells to migrate from the original site and spread to other sites. If cancer spread is not controlled, it may leads to death. Normal cells divide into new cells, then die in an orderly fashion. During the first years of a person’s life, normal cells divide faster, and after becoming an adult, cells divide to replace worn-out or dying cells or to repair damages. Cancer begins when cells start uncontrolled growth. Cancer cell growth is different from normal cell growth. Despite of dying, cancer cells grow and form new cells. Cancer cells…show more content…
The American Cancer Society’s estimates in the United States for 2014 for bladder cancer are:
• About 74,960 new cases of bladder cancer diagnosed about 56,390 in men and 18,300 in women.
• About 15,580 deaths from bladder cancer about 11,170 in men and 4,410 in women, more than 500,000 people in the United States are bladder cancer survivors.

Internationally, the incidence of bladder cancer varies about 10-fold (Figure 1). The disease is reported most often in Europe and North America and least often in several areas of Asia. North Africa (Egypt) is also a high-risk area. In Europe, the highest incidence rates for men were recorded in the Netherlands, Spain and Italy; whereas rates were high in Luxembourg and Germany, intermediate in France and United Kingdom, and the lowest in Slovenia and Bulgaria. In women, the highest incidence rates were in the Netherlands and Luxembourg, and the lowest in the Russian Federation (Jankovic et al.,
…show more content…
Invasive cancers are more likely to spread and are harder to treat. Bladder cancers are divided into several types based how their cells look under a microscope (pathological classification):

1. Transitional cell (urothelial) carcinoma (TCC): This is the most common type of bladder cancer. As about 95% of bladder cancers are TCC. The transitional cell carcinomas cells look like the urothelial cells that line the inside of the bladder. Urothelial cells also line other parts of the urinary tract, such as the lining of the kidneys, ureters, and urethra, so TCC can also occur in these organs. In fact, bladder cancer patients sometimes have other tumors in the lining of the ureters, urethra, or kidneys. So that, the entire urinary tract must be checked for tumors if someone has a cancer in one part of their urinary system.

TCC are also divided into two subtypes, papillary and flat.:
 Papillary carcinomas: finger-like projections grow from the inner surface of the bladder toward the hollow center. Papillary tumors may grow toward the center of the bladder without growing into the deeper layers. These tumors are called noninvasive papillary
Open Document