Scholars and policy makers use the capability approach in a wide range of fields, most prominently in development studies and policy making, welfare economics, social policy, and social and political philosophy The capability approach was first proposed in 1979 by Amartya Sen in a lecture titled “Equality of What?”, reprinted in Sen (1982). However, a similar perspective had already been proposed by Sen in 1978 (in an article reprinted in Sen, 1984, titled “Ethical Issues in Income Distribution: National and International”, chapter 12 of the 1984 collection), where Sen uses the term “primary powers” instead of “capabilities”. The term “primary powers” shows the motivation behind the capability approach, in which Sen tries to go beyond John Rawls’s (1971) theory of
• They become more acceptable to the school or community because this ones becomes use to them, • person-cantered planning means that the learner becomes an active participant in their own plans for their own future Fostering relationships Fostering relation is important to any child more so children with SEN. it is when a personal social relationship is built with any child. I have seen first-hand the benefits of this, and how effective it can prove to be. It makes the children happy, and gain more sell esteem. Their parents feel even better because they perceive that their children are starting to get a bit of love, and feel a sense of belonging among their pairs, tutors, coaches etc. The duty of the parents, teachers, tutors, facilitators etc., is to teach children how to make friends and keep them.
When analyzing my college journey, I realize how I felt "entitled to a particular kind of collegiate education based on [my] family's […] class status" (Sacks, 2007, p. 32). Thus, the sociological approach illuminates how social contexts in my life made me feel entitled to a certain educational path. Economic
It is noticed that contingency approach focuses on the need to familiarise the organisation towards the demand of changing technology and need for generating innovation from environmental and decision making uncertainty. Moreover, this approach to organisational design recommends that not a single method is there to handle the managerial problems. In addition to this, it also states that no organisational suit is present that has the ability to meet the requirements of all the situations (Adler, 2009). The main features of contingency approach to organisational design are as
(2009) finds that individuals who are more likely to respond in a socially desirable fashion (i.e., less honesty in reporting) are more likely to disapprove of bribery. Similarly, Bernardi and Adamaitis (2006) find that participants who are more (less) prone to social desirability report a lower (higher) level of cheating. Finally, Randall and Fernandes (1991) find that social desirability is positively related to self reported ethical behavior. Taken together, this research indicates that individuals who respond in a more socially desirable manner are more likely to over-report ethical behavior. Several prior studies find that females are more susceptible to the social desirability bias than males (Bernardi, 2006; Bernardi and Guptill, 2008; Schoderbek and Deshpande, 1996).
Social Exchange Approach (SEA) was utilized as the guiding theoretical framework to look into teachers’ perceptions of the outcomes they expected to gain from the mentoring program in which they have been involved for three years. The SEA postulates that social relationships are the result of an exchange process that aims at maximizing benefits and minimizing costs. Briefly, the SEA posits that individuals engage in relationships that help them satisfy their specific needs and address specific issues (Homans, 1958). The successful and sustainable relationships are those that offer more benefits and opportunities and present fewer costs and risks. Commitment to maintaining relationships will depend on the expected and perceived outcomes.
The motivation behind the capabilities approach was the emergence of a basic needs approach, where scholars argued that poverty reduction should first focus on a basic set of needs. The capabilities approach provided greater clarity and philosophical foundation along these lines. This approach lies in the realm of normative economics and is an evaluative
The capability of a person depends on a variety of factors, including personal characteristics and social arrangements. A full accounting of individual freedom must, of course, go beyond the capabilities of personal living and pay attention to the person’s other objectives (e.g. social goals not directly related to one’s own life), but human capabilities constitute an important part of individual freedom. In so far as there are genuine ambiguities in the concept of freedom, that should be reflected in corresponding ambiguities in the characterization of capability. This relates to a methodological point, which I have tried to defend elsewhere, that if an underlying idea has an essential ambiguity, a precise formulation of that idea must try to capture that ambiguity rather than hide or eliminate it.
Secondly, the approach emphasizes the study of the various parts in their inter-relationships rather than in isolation from each other. The next factor is that the theory portrays the complexity of a real life management problem much more sharply than any other approach. The fourth attribute is that the approach may be utilized by any of the other approaches and finally is the fact that the approach has been utilized in studying the function of complex organizations and has been utilized as the base for new kinds of