• Administration errors • Transcription errors • Failure to follow proper medical guidelines ( double checking the right drug, doses, routing, time and patient Epinephrine is a catecholamine that stimulates alpha (α) , beta 1 (β-1) and beta 2 (β-2)adrenergic effector dose dependent. Epinephrine influences its effects on the heart, vascular and other smooth muscles. It’s usually administrated for both anaphylaxis and myocardial infarction. Epinephrine is available in different concentrations and it is administered in a variable type of specific to each indication. Doses for Epinephrine Base on Indication: Indication Dose Administration Anaphylactic 0.3-0.5mg of 1:1,000 Intramuscular (IM) Anaphylactic 0.1mg of 1:10,000 IV push over 5 minutes shock Myocardial 1mg of 1:10,000 IV push Infarction concentration What could’ve been done by the medical team to prevent these errors?
Kane et al (2002) carried out a study on the safety and efficacy of antipsychotics. They found that out of 103 individuals, receiving haloperidol, 25% suffered from headaches, 19% had anxiety, 8% had blurred vision,13% felt drowsy, 6% had nausea, 10% were vomiting and 36% of patients taking haloperidol had extrapyramidal symptoms. Of the 103 patients being treated with haloperidol, the mean increase in prolactin levels was 22.5ng/mL. Increased prolactin (hyperprolactinaemia) can cause symptoms including increased milk production (galactorrhoea), gynaecomastia, amenorrhoea and lack of sexual
Development of buprenorphine as an analgesic autoinjector and its quality control parameters 4.1 Introduction The benefit of a drug in any condition is fulfilled when it attains the therapeutic concentration in the body to reduce the symptoms or to cure diseases. To attain the therapeutic concentration, the administered drug has to be better absorbed and distributed in the body. The immediate effect produced by the drug depends upon its faster absorption and distribution. The drug delivery system also plays a role in the period of effect production (Rao et al, 2012). There are a number of drug delivery routes like oral, parenteral, inhalation, transdermal, sublingual, vaginal, ocular and rectal.
 Activating the Mu receptor prolongs the orocecal and colonic transit times by disrupting the gut’s electrical activity, increasing gut capacity, and delaying the passage of fluids through the small intestine, it has no direct effect on absorption  and when used to manage patients with ileostomy diarrhea investigators have obtained significant reduction in faecal loss, improvement in electrolytes and fluid balance have with loperamide therapy. [14, 33] The reduction in intestinal motility and transit time with loperamide could improve the efficiency of the physiological mechanism and is effective in reducing high-output ileostomy. This will hasten the absorption of the medication before intestinal motility is initiated by the ingestion of food.
Abstract: Valproate (VPA) is a widely used anticonvulsant drugs; however, it represents a typical example of drug-induced adverse reactions especially liver injury. The polyunsaturated, omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), prerogatives diverse cytoprotective effects, even though mechanism remains unclear. We have previously demonstrated a protective effect of DHA against VPA-induced hepatotoxicity. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate potential mechanisms of DHA in subsiding VPA-induced hepatotoxicity. To achieve this goal, three group of age matched male Sprague Dawley rats were used in the current study; control group, VPA-group received VPA alone (500 mg/kg orally ever day) and VPA+DHA group received VPA plus DHA
A potential pitfall of the ototopical route of administration could be cerumen. Cerumen is very lipophilic, meaning that if the allopregnanolone were applied onto the cerumen it would likely become trapped, thus reducing the bioavailability and increasing the half-life, but ototopical application could potentially be extended past the cerumen into the otic canal. Alternatively, the quantity of cerumen could be reduced, either by solubilisation or removal, prior to ototopical administration of
Antihistamines. Prescription antihistamine sprays such as azelastine and olopatadine Hcl help reduce symptoms of rhinitis. Side effects may occur, including headache, fatigue and bitter taste in the mouth. However, oral antihistamines like diphenhydramine and loratadine do not seem to work for non-allergic rhinitis. Oral decongestants.
Social anxiety disorder can be treated with medication, psychotherapy, or both. A number of medications originally prescribed for the treatment of depression are now being used to treat anxiety disorders. They are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors act on the brain on a chemical messenger called serotonin; they tend to have fewer side effects than older antidepressants. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors are the oldest of the antidepressant medications; phenelzine, the most commonly prescribed MAOI, is helpful for people with panic disorder and social anxiety disorder.