Sucrose or table sugar (a disaccharide) is a common example of a simple carbohydrate. Complex carbohydrates contain three or more sugar units linked in a chain, with most containing hundreds to thousands of sugar units. They are digested by enzymes to release the simple sugars. Starch, for example, is a polymer of glucose units and is typically broken down to glucose. Cellulose is also a polymer of glucose but it cannot be digested by most organisms.
Complex carbohydrates contain polysaccharides and this includes starches, fiber, and glycogen. The molecule of a carbohydrate (CH2O) consist of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms. The ratio of hydrogen and oxygen in the molecule is 2:1. Carbohydrates provide fuel for the body, spare protein, and prevent ketosis (Weisenberger, 2012). Molecular formula of Carbohydrate: CH2O Structure of Carbohydrates: Simple and Complex (Cargill,
The simplest glycolipid is cerebroside, in which there is only one sugar residue, either Glc or Gal. More complex glycolipids, such as gangliosides, contain a branched chain of as many as seven sugar residues. • Sphingosine - IUPAC Name: (2S,3R)-2-aminooctadec-4-ene-1,3-diol Sphingosine:is synthesized from palmitoyl CoA and serine in a condensation required to yield
Two monosaccharides connected together frame a disaccharide. Such a case is sucrose, which is made out of two monosaccharides, glucose and fructose.Polar covalent bonds connect together amino acids in chains, making peptides. They can likewise be discovered holding together amines. Covalent mixes have low liquefying and breaking points. Huge number of carbon mixes is covalent mixes and include in various fields.
Glucose is the source of energy in cell function, and regulation of its metabolism. Molecules of starch are the main energy-reserve carbohydrate of plants consists of thousands of linear glucose units. Another major and linear compound composed of glucose is cellulose [Glucose]. Protein is found throughout the body in the
There are 12 tiers in a mature glycogen particle. c) Cellulose Cellulose is a carbohydrate which is the principal component of vegetal wall and wood. Cellulose is the most abundant component on earth. The cellulose molecule is a linear unbranched homopolysaccharide. Glucose residues have the beta configuration, so they are linked by (beta1 4) glycosidic bonds.
Introduction to glycogen and glucose Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi. The polysaccharide structure represents the main storage form of glucose in the body. In humans, glycogen is made and stored primarily in the cells of the liver and the muscles hydrated with three or four parts of water. Glycogen functions as the secondary long-term energy storage, with the primary energy stores being fats held in adipose tissue. Muscle glycogen is converted into glucose by muscle cells, and liver glycogen converts to glucose for use throughout the body including the central nervous system.
Table 2 illustrate major carbohydrates in buckwheat honey. As can be seen, six kinds of carbohydrate were distinguished in all the honey samples, including fructose, glucose, kestose, isomaltose, isomaltotriose, panose. Fructose was likely to show the highest level ranged from 40.4% to 48.7%. The second-high content was glucose ranged 21.6% to 28.7%. Kestose, isomaltose, isomaltotriose, panose occurred in all buckwheat honey samples.
Fatty acid composition The fatty acid compositions of CCSO and PMSO are given in Table 2. The fatty acid profile of CCSO reveals that the major acid is linoleic acid (C18:29,12; 65.25%) followed by oleic (C18:19; 16.37%), palmitic (C16:0; 9.72%) and stearic acids (C18:0; 7.26%). The total saturated and unsaturated fatty acids present in CCSO are 17.43% and 82.56%, respectively. The main fatty acid in PMSO is -eleosteraric (C18:39c,11t,13t). Other fatty acids present in significant concentration comprised linoleic acid (C18:29,12; 23.85%) and oleic acid (C18:19; 33.32%).