Carbohydrates Research Paper

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CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are the most abundant biomolecules on Earth. Each year, photosynthesis converts more than 100 billion metric tons of CO2 and H2O into cellulose and other plant products. Carbohydrates are widely distributed in plants and animals; they have important structural and metabolic roles. In plants, glucose is synthesized from carbon dioxide and water by photosynthesis and stored as starch or used to synthesize the cellulose of the plant cell walls. Animals can synthesize carbohydrates from amino acids, but most are derived ultimately from plants. Glucose is the most important carbohydrate; most dietary carbohydrate is absorbed into the bloodstream as glucose formed by hydrolysis of dietary starch and disaccharides, and…show more content…
Many, but not all, carbohydrates have the empirical formula (CH2O)n; some also contain nitrogen, phosphorus, or sulfur. CLASSIFICATION OF CARBOHYDRATES: Carbohydrates are classified as follows: 1.Monosaccharides are those sugars that cannot be hydrolyzed into simpler carbohydrates. They may be classified as trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses, or heptoses, depending upon the number of carbon atoms, and as aldoses or ketoses, depending upon whether they have an aldehyde or ketone group. Monosaccharides are colorless, crystalline solids that are freely soluble in water but insoluble in nonpolar solvents. Most have a sweet taste. The backbones of common monosaccharide molecules are unbranched carbon chains in which all the carbon atoms are linked by single bonds. In the open-chain form, one of the carbon atoms is double-bonded to an oxygen atom to form a carbonyl group; each of the other carbon atoms has a hydroxyl group 2.Disaccharides are condensation products of two monosaccharide units; examples are maltose and sucrose. 3.Oligosaccharides are condensation products of three to ten monosaccharides. Most are not digested by human…show more content…
The simplest monosaccharides are the two three-carbon trioses: glyceraldehyde, an aldotriose, and dihydroxyacetone, a ketotriose (Fig. 7–1a). Monosaccharides with four, five, six, and seven carbon atoms in their backbones are called, respectively, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses, and heptoses. There are aldoses and ketoses of each of these chain lengths ;aldotetroses and ketotetroses, aldopentoses and ketopentoses, and so on. The hexoses, which include the aldohexose D-glucose and the ketohexose D-fructose (Fig. 7–1b), are the most common monosaccharides in nature. The aldopentoses D-ribose and 2-deoxy-D-ribose (Fig. 7–1c) are components of nucleotides and nucleic

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