Abstract In today’s energy driven world, fossil fuels constitute the majority of our fuel resources. Burning of fossil fuels at such an enormous rate has increased the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Such high level of carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere has started to take a toll on the delicate balance of gases in the atmosphere. There are efforts being made to develop a method of carbon sequestration that will effectively convert carbon dioxide in to carbonate minerals using alkaline earth oxides like calcium oxide (CaO), magnesium oxide (MgO). Since the start of the world mineralization has taken place naturally and at large scale but the naturally occurring mineralization reactions are too slow to balance out the high
The pH value is continuously measured during both carbonation steps. During the first step the pH value must kept between 10 and 11. To do so, carbon dioxide from the (from the lime kiln process) is introduce at approx. 70 C so that the lime precipitates together with the impurities. If the pH value falls too much due to introduce carbon dioxide the lime decomposes to form hydrogen carbonate.
Chemical reduction method is not limited to synthesis of silver nanoparticle only, it is also useful to synthesis gold (Au) nanoparticles. The first reduction method was employed in the year 1957 where gold chloride was reduced by phosphorous in aqueous medium. Later citrate stabilized Au nanoparticles (~20 nm) were synthesized from gold tetra-chloroauric acid and using tri-sodium citrate as reducing agent. The synthesis reaction of Au nanoparticles using citrate is written in the following way: 2HAuCl4 + 3C6H8O7 2Au + 3C5H6O5 + 8HCl + 3CO2 In this context it may be stated that size of the Au nanoparticles could be varied by changing synthesis temperature, reagent concentration etc. Later, the role of citrate salt on the pH of
All phosphate fertilizers are obtained by extraction from minerals containing the anion PO43-. In few cases, fields are treated with the crushed mineral, but more frequently further soluble salts are produced by the chemical treatment of phosphate minerals. Phosphate-containing minerals are often referred to collectively as phosphate rock. Phosphate rock naturally weather to release phosphate ions over long periods of time. This plays a key role in regulating the natural phosphorous cycle.
This is a chemical reaction that involves a transfer of electrons from the activated carbon surface to the residual disinfectant. In other words,activated carbon acts as a reducing agent. Activated carbon's removal of chlorine reduces the chlorine to a non-oxidative chloride ion. The reaction is very fast and takes place in the first few inches of a new activated carbon bed. (Where removal of organics by activated carbon takes minutes, removal of chlorine literally takes seconds).
Flotation process has the most important influence for mineral flotation, to choose the rational process depends on the nature of ore, and should also consider the facility of operation, cost and the recovery. For the gold mining that contains only one mineral with gross particles and entrenched uniform, one step grinding and flotation process is usually used. For the gold particles that have variety sizes and entrenched uneven in the gold ore, normally they are placed mercury plate and gravity equipment to pre-recover the gold particles in the grinding and classifier circuit before carry on the flotation process. The above two processes are widely used in gold dressing plant. But for the gold ore with complicated mineral, flotation process will be more complex, for example, separation process in grinding, mud and sand separation process are all applicable in practice.
Importance of Gold and its Role in Economic Development Historical significance of Gold: Gold has considerably shaped the history of mankind, his definition of economics and his overall perception of life about making investment decisions. In the past world was less capitalism oriented but capitalist markets provided the real value of wealth and its possession. The importance of Gold was firstly identified by the kings of Egypt. Gold was an important part of their culture and traditions and people used to wear Gold and perform trade in terms of Gold, it was treated as the most important and precious asset at that time. The Egyptians at about 3000 BC were the first to include Gold and Silver in their monetary system.
Tin is one of a mineral that is produced from reducing the oxide ore with coal in a furnace. It was formed from sediment of granite rock and can be founded in the river, in the ground and in the sea. Generally, the silver tin is shiny and malleable (Stephanie Pappas, 2015). Bangka Belitung surrounded by the sea with a stretch of granite, so the islands are well known as one of the world's second largest tin sources which supply more than 40% of tin in the world (Sapanli, 2009). Throughout history, Bangka Belitung as one of the largest tin sources in the world.
But it could be also a result of a partial leaching of salts from the soil because NaCl is much more soluble than CaSO4. It has been observed in the Euphrates Basin, that gypsum is recrystallized and redistributed in the soil profile after leaching of other, more soluble, salts. Gypsiferous soils cover approximately 100 million hectors in the world (Verheye and Boyagiev, 1997). Gypsum not only dissolve in presence of water it also changes geotechnical properties of
As example, bio-gas can be produced by processing POME through anaerobic treating system. Along these lines, this had made ecological issue on the grounds that the palm oil process industry in Malaysia delivers the biggest contamination stack into the riverss all through the nation. According to Biopact, (2006) about 400m3 of bio-gas produced from 100 tonnes of POME, of which this amount of POME had been released during processing of 20 tonnes of fresh fruit