Carbon Sequestration Research Paper

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Abstract
In today’s energy driven world, fossil fuels constitute the majority of our fuel resources. Burning of fossil fuels at such an enormous rate has increased the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Such high level of carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere has started to take a toll on the delicate balance of gases in the atmosphere. There are efforts being made to develop a method of carbon sequestration that will effectively convert carbon dioxide in to carbonate minerals using alkaline earth oxides like calcium oxide (CaO), magnesium oxide (MgO). Since the start of the world mineralization has taken place naturally and at large scale but the naturally occurring mineralization reactions are too slow to balance out the high
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Keywords: carbon dioxide, mineralization, carbon sequestration, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide. Introduction
In the below section of this paper I will briefly discuss the carbonation of CO2 in the form of inorganic carbonates, also known as mineral sequestration. I have also written about how CO2 mineralization methods can be used for the mitigation of the CO2 by human activities, steps involved in the whole carbonation process, how naturally occurring aquifers and artificially created aquifers can be used for the mineralization and the chemical reactions which take place during the fixation of carbon by this particular method.
Carbon dioxide mineralization
In the process of mineral carbonation, CO2 reacts with metal oxide forming insoluble carbonates of calcium and magnesium as these two are the most attractive metals. This type of reaction is called silicate weathering. The source of alkaline and alkaline-earth metals are the naturally occurring silicates these consume the atmospheric CO2. This process involves first, capturing of residual gases from various sources like industries and power plants then separating
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The natural carbonation of silicate minerals is very slow, so the reactions must be accelerated considerably to be an economically viable large-scale CO2 storage technology. Two problems must be solved to make large-scale mineralization of CO2 more attractive (Herzog, 2002):
• extracting or activating the reactive component MgO from silicate mineral, and
• speeding-up the carbonation chemistry kinetics
Mitigation potential of CO2 utilization
Finally I will discuss the extent, time duration and scale of contribution of the CO2 storage process in the mitigation of the high CO2 emission problem. Three points that I have tried to cover under this heading will be based on the readings of the Table 1:
• As is clear from the table total industrial CO2 use is around 115 Metric tones of CO2 per year. Production of urea is the largest consumer of CO2, accounting for over 60% of that total. From the table and the values that it is showing it is safe to assume that CO2 storage from the industrial emissions will have very little (if any) effect on the mitigation of the CO2 emissions.
• Lifetime of the products formed during carbonation which can use captured CO2

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