Copper chloride dissolve in aqueous solutions to give [Cu (H2O)6]2+ which has blue color, and yellow or red color of the halide complexes [CuCl2+x]x-. Concentrated solutions of CuCl2 are green due to the combination of these various chromophores. It's also considering as week Lewis acid and mild oxidizing agent. The aqueous solutions of copper(II) chloride is Green when high in [Cl−], but more blue when lower in [Cl−]. Parent acid and base: Hydrochloric acid HCl + Cu (OH) 2 Uses: *Can be used in organic synthesis as it effects chlorination of aromatic hydrocarbons, this is often performed in the presence of aluminium oxide.
The reaction the occurred in the experiment was a reaction between acetic acid and isopentyl alcohol to form isopentyl acetate and water. The esterification of acetic acid with isopentyl alcohol occurs in four steps. The first step in the reaction mechanism is the protonation of acetic acid with a proton from the concentrated sulfuric acid that was added to the reaction mixture. In the second step, acetic acid reacts with the isopentyl alcohol to form a reaction intermediate which undergoes proton transfer or rearrangement protonation. Water acts as a leaving group in the third step and is removed from the reaction intermediate.
This identified the product as luminol. 7. Discussion and Conclusion Carboxyl groups, which are made of a carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group, produce carboxylic acids when bonded to hydrogens, alkyls, or aryls. Replacing the hydroxyl group with a different heteroatom substituent will produce a carboxylic derivative, which include amides, anhydrides, esters, and nitriles. The polarity of the acyl carbon atom is produced by the substituent and the electronegativity of the C-O double bond.
1. Introduction Friedel–Crafts acylation of aromatic compounds is one of the most important and practical methods to prepare aromatic ketones. The resulting diaryl ketones are important chemical intermediates for the synthesis of a wide range of compounds such as pharmaceuticals, fragrances, flavors, dyes and agrochemicals [1,2]. This is an electrophilic acylation of aromatic compounds with acid chlorides or acid anhydrides, which is traditionally catalyzed by Lewis acids, such as AlCl3, BF3, SbCl5, FeCl3, ZnCl2, SnCl4, TiCl4 or strong protonic acids, such as H2SO4, HF [3-7]. The major drawbacks of these catalysts are that they are hazardous, corrosive, non-recoverable and usually more than stoichiometric amounts of catalysts are required.
Iron(III) solution was added to the salicylic acid to form a organometallic complex. This makes use of the reaction between the phenol functional group in salicylic acid and ferric ions which allows for visibility due to its violet hue(1). The absorbance is directly proportional to the concentration of salicylic acids. This means that the higher the concentration of salicylic acid, the higher the amount of salicylate-iron complex formed, resulting in higher violet intensities and hence a higher absorbance, as seen from table 1. Since the Fe3+ ions react with the singular phenol functional group in salicylic acid, the amount of Fe3+ added should be in a 1:1 ratio with the concentration of salicylic acid.
Carboxylic acid would react with alcohol to produce ester and water molecules. The alcohol and carboxylic acid used in the experiment are organic chemicals. Carboxylic acid are very polar carboxyl group and alcohol are very polar hydroxyl group therefore the carboxylic acid and alcohol are very soluble in water. This however only applies to the lower member of the carboxylic acid and alcohol group. This is because the the lower member is a very polar molecule therefore the very polar alcohol/carboxylic acid would react with the very polar water molecules.
Cross Condensation of aldol 2015007632 Dowrie, K Contents Reaction 1 Introduction 1 Experiment Procedure 2 Experimental results 3 Table of calculations 3 Calculations 3 NMR 4 TLC 4 References 5 Reaction Introduction An aldehyde reaction is when aldehydes and keytones, both containing an α-hydrogen in the presence of an alkali group condenses and forms an enone. Acetone has α-hydrogens on each side. The proton can be removed and therefore giving a nucleophile anion. The aldehyde carbonyl is more reactive than the keytone and so it reacts rapidly with the anion. This product undergoes base catalysed hydration giving dibenzalacetone.
Acetylation Lab Summary Two versions of the same experiment were performed to assess the difference in reactivity of certain amines with acetic anhydride. Throughout both experiments, observations were made about the reaction progress. The starting materials and products were characterized using thin layer chromatography (TLC), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and melting point. During the first week, I dissolved 0.512g of aniline in 8.5mL of water, and added 5.5mL of 1M HLC. During this step, I observed that there were bubbles in the solution, especially at the bottom of the beaker.
To analyze the acetanilide product of the reaction, 1H NMR and IR were used. Results, Discussions, and Conclusions In this experiment, acetanilide was synthesized via nucleophilic acyl substitution from both acetic anhydride and aniline. During this reaction, aniline acts as the nucleophile and acyl (CH3CO-) group from acetic anhydride acts as the electrophile. The hydrogen atom of –NH2 group is replaced by the acyl group. The crude product contained acetanilide, and acetic acid, which was the impurity.