Carboxylic Acids Lab Report

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Large numbers of carboxylic acids are found in nature. Carboxylic acids have very strong odors, especially the volatile derivatives of carboxylic acids. The properties of carboxylic acids depend upon the structure and presence of carboxyl group. The most commonly used carboxylic acid is the acetic acid which is found in vinegar. Can you imagine there are certain things we come across in our daily life that contain carboxylic acids? For instance, do you know human vomit and body odor contains members of the carboxylic acid group? Human vomit contains butyric acid whereas body odor contains propionic acid. The properties of carboxylic acids depend upon the structure and presence of carboxyl group.
Similarly, formic acid is found in insect
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However, a carboxyl group is formed by the attachment of a hydroxyl group to a carbonyl group. This is why the group is known as carboxyl group. Carboxylic acids can be either aliphatic or aromatic on the basis of the group present. If an alkyl group is present (RCOOH) and if an aryl group is present (ArCOOH). The higher members of the aliphatic carboxylic acids, from C12-C18 are known as fatty acids that are found in nature as natural fats or esters of glycerol. Moreover, this group is the starting material for many essential organic compounds like esters, acid chlorides, anhydrides, amides…show more content…
The bonds of carboxyl carbon are separated by approximately 120°. The resonance structure of the carboxyl carbon makes it less electrophilic in comparison to a carbonyl carbon. Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids
This class is among one of the earliest organic compounds that were isolated from nature. This is the reason many of the compounds of this class of compounds have common names more in use.
Common Names
The origin of the common names of many members of the carboxylic acids group is from their respective Latin or Greek names of the natural sources. The common names generally end with the suffix –ic acid. For instance, HCOOH is formic acid. The origin of the name is from the Latin word “formica” which means ant. This is because initially formic acid was obtained from red ants. Acetic acid (CH3COOH) derives its name from vinegar and the Latin word of vinegar is “acetum.” Similarly, butyric acid derives its name from rancid butter which in Latin is known as butyrum.
IUPAC Name
According to the IUPAC system, the nomenclature of aliphatic carboxylic acids is done by replacing the “e” of the respective alkane with –oic

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