DERIVATIVES Carboxylic acids One of the derivatives of the carboxylic acid is the organic compound with a functional group of –COOH. Carboxylic acids are also can be divided into two main compounds; ie aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acid. As such, we may refer to a chemical compound with two –COOH functional group as dicarboxylic acid. The following is an example of the common variation of carboxyl chemical compound:- FIGURE: Ethanoic acid (commonly known as acetic acid) FIGURE: 1,1-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid Physical properties of Carboxylic Acids Generally, carboxylic acids have a relative higher boiling point and melting point compared to other organic compounds such as alcohols and hydrocarbons which are much likely prior
Definition of aromatic amines: It is an organic compound in which there are one or more than one amino groups in the chemical structure of aromatic amine. Considered as aromatic hydrocarbons adjunct to substituents which are from amino type and it is believed that they appear in the period of treat food in a thermal way especially food with a large amount of proteins. Aromatic amines also contain benzidine, B-naphthylamine and 4-amino diphenyl. Also, aromatic amines are chemical compounds which have a huge ability to cause cancer disease for example, there are many workers in the field of industry who exposed to aromatic amines such as the industry of rubber. Synthesis pathways for aromatic amines: 1- Synthesis of aromatic amines using arylation:
Introduction Enzymes regulate the biochemical processes in various organisms. The enzymes catalyze reactions and at times help with the generation of the ATP, which is an energy source. Among the enzymes of biological importance is the succinyl CoA synthetase. The essay focuses on the structure, functions, and relations of succinyl CoA synthetase. The molecular weight and the subunit structure Succinyl- CoA synthetase enzyme is a heterotetramer with both an alpha and beta subunits.
The principal product in this case is R-Nuc. In such reactions, the nucleophile is usually electrically neutral or negatively charged, whereas the substrate is typically neutral or positively charged. An example of Nucleophilic substitution is the hydrolysis of an alkyl bromide, R-Br, under basic conditions, where the attacking nucleophile is the base OH− and the leaving group is Br−. R-Br + OH− → R-OH + Br− Nucleophilic substitution reactions are commonplace in organic chemistry, and they can be broadly categorized as taking place at a carbon of a saturated aliphatic compound carbon or (less often) at an aromatic or other
It is also a constituent used to remove scale from automobile radiators.16 Oxalic acid has a molecular mass of 90.0349 g.mol-1. It is a strong acid and is in the carboxylic group. Although it is in the carboxylic group it is not as weak as the other carboxylic acids. Oxalic acid has 2 levels of ionisation as it is a diprotic acid. A diprotic acid is an acid that can donate 2 protons (H+ ions) per molecule to an aqueous solution.
Sulphuric acid/ sulfuric acid is a type of organic acid with wide range of uses. It has the molecular formula of H2SO4 and a molecular weight of 98.079 g/mol. This organic acid has an appearance of a colourless to a light yellowish liquid with an odorless scent. Contact Process is a process that is commonly used to produce sulphuric acid. To date, there are three types of contact process which are the Single-Contact Process, Double-Contact Process and the Wet Contact Process.
The absorption band at 1627.8 cm-1 referred to C=C stretching vibration which is possible to be derived from aromatic ring in amino acid, while the absorption band in 1529.4 cm-1 referred to N-H bending vibration of amine which is possible to be derived from the L-dopa. An intense enough absorption band at absorbance area of 1400.2 cm-1 referred to C-H bending vibration of sp2 carbon, which is possible to be derived from the aromatic ring of amino acid. The weaker absorption band at 1288.4 cm-1 corresponded to =C-O stretching vibration of aromatic compounds, and the absorption band at 1074.3-1118.6 cm-1 referred to C-O stretching vibration of amino
Fatty acid composition The fatty acid compositions of CCSO and PMSO are given in Table 2. The fatty acid profile of CCSO reveals that the major acid is linoleic acid (C18:29,12; 65.25%) followed by oleic (C18:19; 16.37%), palmitic (C16:0; 9.72%) and stearic acids (C18:0; 7.26%). The total saturated and unsaturated fatty acids present in CCSO are 17.43% and 82.56%, respectively. The main fatty acid in PMSO is -eleosteraric (C18:39c,11t,13t). Other fatty acids present in significant concentration comprised linoleic acid (C18:29,12; 23.85%) and oleic acid (C18:19; 33.32%).
Saponification Value Fats and oils are the stored forms of energy in many organisms. They are highly reduced compounds and are derivatives of fatty acids. Fatty acids are made up of carboxylic acids with hydrocarbon chains of 4 to 36 carbons. Fatty acids can either be saturated (solid in room temperature) or unsaturated (liquid in room temperature). The simplest lipids made from fatty acids are triacylglycerols or triglycerides.
The origin of the name is from melanos (Greek dark) is usually attributed to the Swedish chemist Berzelius in 1840. The term “melanin” has been used fairly indiscriminately to mean any dark pigment. The synthesis of melanin is one of the most universal, but at the same time enigmatic adaptations of living organisms to the variable conditions of the Earth. Melanin is widely dispersed in the animal and plant kingdoms and also synthesized from microorganisms (Riley , 1997). The most common form of biological melanin is eumelanin, a brown-black polymer of dihydroxyindole carboxylic acids, and their reduced forms.