Cardiac Catheterization Study

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Over the years, the cardiac catheterization has become essential in the evaluation and treatment of cardiac disease, cardiac catheterization indication have modified from a predominantly low risk profile of patients to include complex coronary lesions and high risk clinical conditions, including acute coronary syndromes(ACS), Considering the significant changes in the profiles of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization procedures. Moreover, the complication rates of the procedure can be anticipated to show comparable changes. Most of the studies reported that, complication rates of cardiac catheterization have been restricted largely to the practice prevalent several years earlier in recent times; the scenario of cardiac catheterization…show more content…
It is now an undoubted fact that the huge amount of anatomic and physiologic information released from cardiac catheterization studies gave a chance to understand the mechanisms of cardiac conditions dissimilarity. The first cardiac catheterization procedure of an animate heart perhaps was in 1711 when Stephen Hales inserted brass tubes through the jugular vein and the carotid artery into the ventricles of a horse. Over a century later, in 1844, Claude Bernard initiated a series of tests using cardiac catheterization in animals (Grossman, 2006), and became the first one who precisely report intra cardiac pressures by performing right heart catheterization (RHC) in a dog .The X-rays developed to produce fluoroscopic images of the beating heart in 1896, The first cardiac catheterization in a living human was performed by Werner Forssmann in 1929. and reported that the (RHC) through the venous system would provide safe and rapid access to the heart, but his ideas were widely discredited, as it was a general belief at that time that any heart invasion might be immediately fatal. However, in1929, Forssmann decided to follow his work on his own, he placed a ureteral catheter into an antecubital vein and advanced it to its full length of 65 cm (Fig 1), and then walked downstairs into the X-ray room in the basement where he took the…show more content…
Klein and coworkers measured cardiac output in 1930 using right heart catheterization; however, the use of cardiac catheterization for diagnostic purposes remained fragmentary; until in 193. The first pulmonary artery catheterization was performed in 1944, and in 1947 Dexter advanced the catheter into the distal pulmonary arteries reporting oxygen saturation ( Spo2) and pressures of pulmonary capillary blood obtained from the (wedge) position (Lanzer,

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