Role of thoracic ultrasound in diagnosis of pulmonary and pleural diseases in critically ill patients Introduction: Traditionally, lung imaging in critically ill patients is usually performed either by bedside chest radiography (CXR) or thoracic computed tomography (CT), but both techniques have limitations which constrain their usefulness. Although thoracic CT is the gold standard for lung imaging, it is expensive and cannot be performed on a routine basis as the transportation of critically ill patients to the radiology department combined with the radiation exposure carries a measurable risk (1,2). On the other hand, limitations of bedside CXR have been well described and lead to poor quality X-ray ﬁlms with low sensitivity (3). It has
Charles Richard Drew was born on June 3,1904, in Washington, D.C. Charles Richard Drew was an African American surgeon who developed a way to store blood plasma for transfusion and coordinated the first substantial blood in the United States. He conducted the blood plasma programs of the United States and Great Britain during World War 2. Charles resigned, knowing that the blood of the African Americans would be separated. He died on April 1,1950. Drew made outstanding discoveries in the process of blood transfusion.
He graduated in 1759. In 1762, Galvani married Lucia Galeazzi. She was the daughter of an anatomist who was also a Professor of Galeazzi of the Bologna Academy of Science. Few years later he became a teacher in Academy of Sciences where he used autopsies and models for his work. Galvani was the first to discover that there is a relationship between electricity & life.
He then concluded that the patient was in love with a girl whose home Avicenna was able to pinpoint based on the examination of his pulse. This demonstrates how physicians in the early Islamic period diagnosed certain medical illnesses by using palpitations and the arterial pulse to indicate abnormal heart rate, allowing certain sickness to be treated before reaching late stages. Similarly, regarding the impact of the arterial pulse, the discovery of heart palpitations also affected modern times as it furthered humans’ knowledge on cardiology, which led the way to several new breakthroughs such as physicians to using pulse and palpitation as a diagnosis as well as prognosis. In conclusion, Avicenna’s book The Canon of Medicine was a significant piece of medical work as it educated people through its medical doctrines. The breakthroughs included within the piece impacted not only the understanding of medicine in the pre Islamic civilization but also today.
Health care personnel and quality improvement professionals are focusing their attention on identifying factors that are causing high rates of readmissions. This focus is being driven by the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program which was implemented as part of the Affordable Care Act. “Effective October 1, 2012, organizations with high 30-day readmission rates for acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia could see their annual hospital Medicare payments reduced by 1%, according to a final rule from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)”. (Clancey, 2013) Hospital readmissions are an increasing problem in hospitals across the country. Readmissions are not only costly but they jeopardize the health of the elderly who are at risk for loss of function, hospital-acquired infections, and other poor outcomes when hospitalized.
Hospital readmission is used for several purposes, such as cost control or a correcting measure for length of hospital stay or other outcome. In recent years, there is a great interest in the readmission rate as a representative of quality of hospital care. So, hospital readmission can be viewed as a criteria of poor quality care and have been estimated to cost Medicare that avoidable to spending (1). Despite its use by administering for both quality of health care and cost control, however, the validity of readmission rates as a criteria of quality of hospital care is not evident (17). Reducing readmission has become a high priority for government and a healthcare system (2).
Congenital Analgesia has been present in individuals for several centuries, but the first medial case study was not performed until 1932 by Dr. Dearborn, on a man that had referred to himself as a human pincushion. This case study was described as a ‘Case of Congenital Pure Analgesia’ and led to many further studies and the creation of different terms to describe Congenital Analgesia. With access to more sophisticated technology, experiments have now been completed to determine the cause of Congenital Analgesia and allow doctors to have a better understanding of the disorder and its effects on each
CHAPTER – I INTRODUCTION Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide public health problem. Over the last several decades, improvements in acute care have resulted in higher survival rates. In developed countries, there has been a reduction in the mortality rates associated with TBI, generally attributed to improved systems of trauma care and improved motor vehicle safety design. Many individuals with mild traumatic brain injury and virtually all individuals who survive moderate and severe TBI are left with significant long-term neurobehavioral sequelae, including cognitive deficits, changes in personality and increased rates of psychiatric illness. These neurobehavioral problems are understandable in the context of the typical profile of
With the speech therapist there is usually a discussion of cognition, attention, and focus issues to make sure that the patient does not become out of touch due to a prolonged stay in the hospital. This condition, known as Hospital Induced Delirium, can have detrimental effects on the health and wellbeing of patients. I was surprised to find out that this often results in an increase in long term care admissions. The speech therapist and the occupational therapist collaborate to make sure that the patient has activities that are challenging both physically and mentally in order to ward off this condition. Hospital induced delirium can increase morbidity and even mortality over time.
Surgeries have become a routine process.Around fifteen million surgeries are performed a year. They put you under anesthesia, they operate, and you wake up with a little discomfort. However, there was a time where surgeries would happen while the patient was awake and conscious. They tried to keep the pain to a minimum with alcohol and hypnosis, but didn 't drastically change. This all changed on March 30, 1842 when Crawford Long operated on James Venable after he had inhaled sulfuric-ether.
Introduction: Diabetes Insipidus (DI) is a common complication following pituitary surgery. It has been traditionally reported in the range of 5 to 15% after transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenomas. Here we report our experience with Diabetes Insipidus following Endoscopic resection of pituitary adenomas. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the Stanford University Pituitary Adenoma database. Between the years 2007 and 2012 we identified 183 patients who underwent endoscopic resection of pituitary adenomas by the senior author (G.R.H).
The CHADS2 or CHA2DS2-VASc risk stratification method is used to direct the treatment of patients with AF by assessing a patient’s risk for stroke. CHADS2 assigns one point each for congestive heart failure, hypertension, age 75 or older, and diabetes, and two points for a previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Compared to CHADS2 score, CHA2DS2-VASc score includes three additional factors: vascular disease (prior MI, PAD or aortic plaque), age 65-74 years, and female gender. Each additional factor counts as one point, while an age 75 or older was upgraded to two points. The CHA2DS2-VASc score includes categories of 0 (low risk), 1 (intermediate risk), and 2 or more (high risk).
A few years later, he gives a public demonstration to show Galen’s anatomical theories were incorrect; the theories were correct for an ape, but did not show relations to a human. In 1543, Vesalius published De humani corporis fabrica, illustrating a series of dissections and drawings. In the 16th century, the publication of a book provided one of the greatest breakthroughs in the understanding of the human body. It is titled Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis animalibus (‘The Anatomical Function of the Movement of the Heart and the Blood in Animals’) by William Harvey. The book demonstrated the precise circuit that blood is pumped in.
There are numerous parts for cardiovascular ultrasound throughout potentially cardiotoxic cancer treatment regimens. Primarily, prior to potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy, echocardiography can safeguard that patients do not already have diminished cardiac function. Subsequently, throughout chemotherapy, cardiovascular ultrasound can monitor ventricular function to eliminate chemotherapy-induced dysfunction. Preceding, the follow-up treatment, cardiovascular ultrasound can regulate new symptoms that are potentially caused from cardiac disease. Initial discovery of diminished ventricular function permits adjustments in the chemotherapy regimen, either by increasing the break amid doses or by reducing the total cumulative dose of a theoretically toxic agent.