Pulmonary edema or congestion happens when the left ventricle of the heart fails. This is simply because the inefficiency of its ventricle to pump effectively causes the blood to back up to the pulmonary capillaries as the pulmonary venous blood rises its pressure into the tissues and alveoli impairing the gas exchange. Pulmonary congestion will be manifested in crackles, difficulty of breathing, frothy pink-tinged sputum and shortness of breath. In addition, the decreased amount of blood ejected from the left side causes ineffective tissue perfusion. This is detrimental to other vital organs such as the kidneys.
The pleural space begins to fill causing the-the mediastinum to maneuver around, which can lead to disruption of the airflow and pulmonary circulation. Once the air circulation is disrupted the patient begins to compensate. Tension pneumothorax can be misleading if not realizing to symptoms. A patient with tension pneumothorax is going to have chest pain caused by the lung collapsing. The patient will experience respiratory distress causing the patient to breath faster because they are not getting the proper amount of oxygen, respiratory distress can lead to altered mental status and diminished breath
The disease is characterized by weakening of the ventricular myocardial muscle, resulting from elongation of myocytes accompanied by a vacuolar sarcoplasm and reduced myofibril density.  Weakening of the heart muscle results in a decreased stroke volume, leading to compensatory changes by a process called remodeling. The remodeling is characterized by elongation of myocytes by addition of sarcomeres, resulting in dilation -enlargement - of the heart while the wall thickness does not increase proportionally. This process of remodeling can spread to the other ventricle and to the atria.  The long-term effects of the remodeling are a further weakening of the heart muscle and it can eventually lead to heart failure.
Right Coronary Artery. When these arteries are narrowed, the blood flow and oxygen circulation is forced to stop causing your body to have less movement. This is a very dangerous disease due to the fact that when the blood clot occurs in the body, your heart may stop pumping blood and inhaling/exhaling oxygen which leads to certain heart attacks and/or death.
Heart failure is when the heart is not functioning properly and becomes unable to supply the body properly with oxygen. Congestive heart failure is when this lack of function begins affecting the lungs ability to function normally by filling the alveoli with fluid. During normal functioning of the cardiovascular system, blood arrives at the right atrium of the heart via the vena cava. The right atrium empties blood into the right ventricle, which pumps it’s contents into the arterioles surrounding the alveoli of the lungs. From the lungs, the blood voyages to the left atrium of the heart.
This type of chest pain occurs when one or more of the coronary arteries are either blocked or narrowed. This can cause an uncomfortable pressure, fullness, and a squeezing sensation in the center of the chest. Known triggers are exertion and emotional stress. Stable angina is usually relieved with rest and medication such as nitroglycerin.
The exudative phase unfolds over the first 1 to 7 days after attack of lung injury. Accumulation in the alveoli of excessive fluid, protein and inflammatory cells that have move into the air spaces from the alveolar capillaries. Intrapulmonary shunt develop and blood passing cannot be oxygenated. Alveolar type I and type II cells are spoiled causing surfactant dysfunction. Alveoli become unstable and collapse and fibrotic changes take place.
Extra Credit Paper: Congestive Heart Failure There are many different diseases in the world today. One of those diseases is congestive heart failure. Congestive heart failure, according to Chris Linney, an Irish veterinarian, “is whereby abnormal cardiac function results in the accumulation and retention of water and sodium, most frequently resulting in pulmonary or systemic volume overload leading to congestion.” congestive heart failure takes place when the lungs can fill up with fluid, which can be fatal or can cause congestion.
The main problem that the kidneys are prone to is kidney failure, also called acute renal failure. This is the condition where the kidneys lose their ability to stop working or perform their functions. The types of causes of this disorder are categorized based on when they take place, therefore there are the pre -renal, renal and the post- renal causes. The pre- renal causes are the ones that happen before the disease occurs, they include; blood-clotting issues, low blood pressure causing low blood volume (hypovolemia) in the kidney, urinary tract infections, dehydration and medication such as diuretics which cause water loss. Renal causes affect the kidney directly, they include sepsis (when the immune system is overwhelmed by infections which causes the kidney to shut down), medication which are toxic to the kidney e.g. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, and others) etc.
Hypoperfusion refers to inadequate supply of oxygen to the body organs; this is a sign that is associated with the blood. By reducing the blood flow in other parts of the body, it will increase the blood flow to the brain, vital organs and heart. The causes of shocks were excessive loss of blood, excessive pain, infection, heart attack, stroke, poisoning by chemicals, drugs, gases, lack of O2, physiological trauma, dehydration from burns, vomiting and diarrhea. Some symptoms are rapid & weak pulse, rapid breathing, low blood pressure, vomiting/nausea, blurred vision and other signs. In order to treat them, the medical personnels should eliminate the causes of the shock, provide enough blood and oxygen in our body, and there’s different types of injuries, so positioning the shock victim is based on the injury unless the place is dangerous.
25 medical words pertaining to the blood, lymphatic and cardiovascular system. 1. Hypercalcemia is a condition where the blood contains too much calcium. 2. Myoglobin is a type of protein that transport oxygen to the muscle.
Case Study 2: CHF Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a disease process in which the cardiac function as a pump cannot meet the body requirements resulting in fluid buildup in tissues such as arms, abdomen, limbs, and lungs. Symptoms can include fatigue, edema, dyspnea, and reduced tolerance to activities. Causes of CHF are cardiomyopathy, hypertension, and atherosclerosis, etc. Cardiomyopathy is an illness that affects the myocardium (heart muscles) and includes three types: dilated, hypertrophic, and restrictive cardiomyopathy. Managing a patient with this condition requires a proper treatment plan, techniques for education, and an all-inclusive teaching strategy.