This allow desaturated blood to shunt right to left side, causing desaturation in the left side of the heart and in the systemic circulation causing hypoxia and cyanosis. PULMONARY ATRESIA / PULMONARY STENOSIS Pulmonary Stenosis is the narrowing at the entrance to the pulmonary artery causing right ventricular hypertrophy. Pulmonary Atresia is the severe form of pulmonary stenosis.
Al Waysmoking was a 72 year-old retired factory worker who was a chain smoker. He is experiencing fatigue, shortness of breath, but continues to smoke. Upon exam his Nurse Practitioner notes that he has a prolonged expiratory phase, expiratory wheezes, and an increased anteroposterior chest diameter. His nail beds were cyanotic and he had moderate pitting edema. Pulmonary Function Testing (PFT) revealed that Al had a decreased VC and an increased RV and FRC.
According to Ackley and Ladwig (2011), the prioritized nursing diagnosis for 211A "Risk for ineffective airway Clearance" (p.180) related to increased secretions secondary to tracheostomy as evidence by suctioning secretions two times per shift. The goal of nursing care for 211A would be to maintain a clear and open airway during shift. Impaired Gas Exchange related to alveolar- capillary membrane changes secondary to hypercapnia as evidence by abnormal breathing (p.394). The goal is to maintain clear lungs and free from signs of respiratory
Cardiomyopathy can occur from the lack of dystrophin on the heart muscles. Cardiomyopathy makes it difficult for the patient to breathe. The heart becomes weak and swollen. It is not able to pump enough blood throughout the body, which will cause life-threatening results.
What causes the heart to become weaker? There is a number of causes, but most of all, the arteries may narrow in the heart. That is another disease known as Coronary Artery Disease. Another reason that a Congestive Heart Failure may occur is because of high blood pressure.
This defect causes complications and makes it difficult for the mitral valve to regulate blood flow in the heart. The deregulation of blood flow affects the lungs by allowing extra blood to flow into the organs. The heart then has to overwork itself in order to pump this extra blood out of the lungs and will cause the heart muscle to enlarge, leading to high blood pressure and even heart failure if left untreated. Atrioventricular septal defect is
When this occurs, the lungs can’t release oxygen in the body . In return , other organs don't get enough oxygen-rich blood to function. Respiratory failure can also be developed if your lungs can’t remove carbon dioxide from your blood. Causing your body not to function how it usually does .Also when the lungs don't work your blood loses oxygen and starts to build up an excess of waste carbon dioxide.
Pulmonary edema or congestion happens when the left ventricle of the heart fails. This is simply because the inefficiency of its ventricle to pump effectively causes the blood to back up to the pulmonary capillaries as the pulmonary venous blood rises its pressure into the tissues and alveoli impairing the gas exchange. Pulmonary congestion will be manifested in crackles, difficulty of breathing, frothy pink-tinged sputum and shortness of breath. In addition, the decreased amount of blood ejected from the left side causes ineffective tissue perfusion. This is detrimental to other vital organs such as the kidneys.
Blood will flow from the left ventricle into the right ventricle with this particular defect. The defect causes increased blood flow into the lungs and can eventually result in pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension will causes damage to the small blood vessels in lungs progressively through time. This is known as pulmonary vascular disease. As the damage progresses, pulmonary hypertension will increase and the small blood vessels become thickened and blocked affecting the flow of blood.
Myocardial Infarction which is another word for Heart-attack. When you have an heart-attack your blood is not getting to your heart's muscle. This means your arteries are clogged. Blood is pumped through your arteries to all of the parts in your body. If you have a heart condition you shouldn't smoke, you should diet and exercise, you should watch your Blood Pressure if you have to take medication for your Blood Pressure make sure you take the prescribed medication.
By decreasing atelectasis, this decrease ventilation perfusion gap and increases gas exchange move pulmonary secretions, Increase lung compliance, Manual hyperinflation may be showed in patients demanding mechanical ventilation and self-ventilating tracheostomy patients who have Chest x-ray alter the lung collapse and consolidation or by areas which are less ventilated on auscultation. The capability to monitor patients’ response (Heart rate, blood pressure and oxygen saturations) is essential. Manual hyperinflation can reduce respiratory drive by decreasing the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2) this is an significant concern in treatment of subject with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  In monitoring units physiotherapists deal with intubated patients normally with lung collapse, it is seen that furthermost of the patients went for bronchoscopy technique to expand the lung. Pulmonologists are going for bronchoscopy which is very expensive procedure and having risks of bleeding and infection.
causes of peripheral edema in patients with heart failure are related to compensatory changes that influence hydrostatic pressure and fluid retention? (Cooper 2011). Input and Output need to be monitored ? accurate measuring for intake and output is important for the client with fluid overload.? (Metheny 2010).
Causes and symptoms Shock is caused by three major categories of problems: cardiogenic (meaning problems associated with the heart 's functioning); hypovolemic (meaning that the total volume of blood available to circulate is low); and septic shock (caused by overwhelming infection, usually by bacteria). Cardiogenic shock can be caused by any disease, or event, which prevents the heart muscle from pumping strongly and consistently enough to circulate the blood normally. Heart attack, conditions which cause inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis), disturbances of the electrical rhythm of the heart, any kind of mass or fluid accumulation and/or blood clot which interferes with flow out of the heart can all significantly affect the heart 's ability to adequately pump a normal quantity of blood.