Nerve fibers in the retina may begin to swell. Sometimes the central part of the retina (macula) begins to swell (macular edema), a condition that requires treatment. Advanced diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy can progress to this more severe type, known as proliferative diabetic retinopathy. In this type, damaged blood vessels close off, causing the growth of new, abnormal blood vessels in the retina, and can leak into the clear, jelly-like substance that fills the center of your eye (vitreous).
Detection of a spike in PI is a sign to the physician of the successful onset of anaesthesia. Conversely, no increase in PI in a patient given anaesthesia may be an early warning of anaesthetic failure. Most anaesthetics produce a vasodilatative effect by way of increasing the vasodilatation threshold and decreasing the vasoconstriction threshold. Anesthesia can also cause temperature redistribution, which further increases peripheral perfusion. PI value has been considered a useful tool for accurately monitoring changes in peripheral perfusion in real time caused by certain anesthetics.
Myocardial perfusion imaging: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a form of functional cardiac imaging, used for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. The underlying principle is that under conditions of stress, diseased myocardium receives less blood flow than normal myocardium. MPI is one of several types of cardiac stress test. A cardiac specific radiopharmaceutical is administered.
Diastole is the reading when the heart is relaxed and systole is when the ventricles of the heart contract (the working phase of the heart) Hypertension (high blood pressure) is blood pressure that consistently remains above the normal level of 120/80. Things such as stress, kidney disease, smoking, too much alcohol and bad diet can cause high blood pressure Hypotension (Low blood pressure) is when the blood pressure constantly remains below the normal level of 120/80. Things such as shock, haemorrhage, burns, some types of medication, dehydration, anaemia and allergic reactions can cause low blood
INTRODUCTION Cardiovascular disease is a general term that describes the disease of the heart or the blood vessels. These diseases can include many categories, some of which includes, angina, abnormal blood pressure for the age group, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, abnormal pulse, hypertensive emergency and others which will be discussed later on. The cardiovascular system is actually made up of a few parts, including the heart, blood and all the blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries) in the body.
FETAL DISTRESS The terms fetal distress and birth asphyxia are broad terms which may point at an adverse condition affecting the fetus. Fetal distress is a a term used to describe a situation where the clinician feels that the fetus is hypoxic or acidotic or is at risk of becoming so and this concern is significant enough to warrant intervention, usually in the form of operative delivery100.
In certain cases, medical teams will be attach catheter into the urine bag. When necessary, is done filming the structure of kidney with CT (computed tomography) scans or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans and biopsies, that kidney tissue sampling. Causes Of Kidney Failure Diseases of the kidney failure is usually due to some serious disease that progressively damages organs that have an impact on sized in length ranging from 10-13 centimeters and a thickness 5 – 7.5 centimetres. There are several types of illnesses that can affect kidney damage, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and blockage of the urinary tract. Diseases of the urinary tract blockages such as stones, tumors, and also causes narrowing of the kidney failure.
Over the years, the cardiac catheterization has become essential in the evaluation and treatment of cardiac disease, cardiac catheterization indication have modified from a predominantly low risk profile of patients to include complex coronary lesions and high risk clinical conditions, including acute coronary syndromes(ACS), Considering the significant changes in the profiles of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization procedures. Moreover, the complication rates of the procedure can be anticipated to show comparable changes. Most of the studies reported that, complication rates of cardiac catheterization have been restricted largely to the practice prevalent several years earlier in recent times; the scenario of cardiac catheterization
This device aims to target the primary issue of heart failure, which is the heart’s decrease in function. Ventricular assist devices help the heart pump blood from the ventricles to the rest of the body in a more efficient way.20 VAD can be used to treat left or right heart failure however, it is most commonly used in the left ventricle.20 A VAD can be used in patients who are awaiting heart transplantation but need short term support. It can also be used in patients who need long term support, but are not viable candidates to receive a heart transplant.20 Implantation of a ventricular assist device is an invasive procedure; so several diagnostic tests may be done in order to evaluate the eligibility of an individual to undergo the process. The procedure consists of an open heart surgery that lasts several hours.20 During the surgery, the individual is placed on mechanical ventilation and the heart is stopped via medication.
The raise in IOP with endotracheal intubation is tolerated to some extent in normal eye, but may produce deleterious effect in patients with already raised IOP like acute angle closure glaucoma or in children with penetrating eye injury. Even a small raise in IOP for a short time may cause optic disc ischaemia resulting in blindness in acute angle closure glaucoma, whereas in penetrating eye injury, expulsion of intraocular contents occurs. In chronic glaucoma the incidence of loss of central vision is about 30%. When the IOP raises above 20 mmHg. , whereas the incidence is less when IOP is below 18 mmHg.
Angina and Myocardial Infarction both occur due to low amounts of oxygenated blood in the tissues of the heart however in a myocardial infarction the tissue doesn’t just suffer for a short amount of time and then recovers like it would with angina, it actually dies. Mistovich & Karren (2013) state that tissue death usually occurs within the 20 to 30 minute window of oxygen starvation. Myocardial Infarction can be caused by coronary artery disease, like angina, and it too causes chest pain (Pollack, 2012). According to Daniel Limmer and Michael F. O’keefe (2008), on minimal occasions, the heart attack can be caused by an aneurysm which is when the heart’s coronary artery actually
Therefore, peak expiratory flow rate would refer to the maximum speed of expiration. Expiratory flow is decreased in Al because loss of elastic fibers in the lungs impairs the expiratory flow rate. Narrowing of the airways inside the lungs, in addition to damage to the lungs, causes the exhaled air to come out more slowly than normal (NIH, 2016). In people with COPD, the air sacs can no longer revert back to their original shape. The airways become swollen or thicker than normal.
(NSW Health 2012:20). Glyceryl Trinitrate acts on vascular smooth muscles and dilate arteries and veins. Vasodilatation results in the reduction of venous return which also reduces the work load of the heart and oxygen demand. GTN sublingual tablet or spray can be repeated every 5 minute for maximum of 3 doses. Regular monitoring of vital signs is important because GTN can cause Hypotension.
Systolic and Diastolic Heart Failure Heart failure occurs when the heart cannot pump enough blood for the body due to a weakened or damaged heart. The heart 's pumping action moves oxygen-rich blood as it travels from the lungs to the left atrium, then on to the left ventricle, which pumps it to the rest of the body. The left ventricle supplies most of the heart 's pumping power, so it 's larger than the other chambers and essential for normal function. (American Heart Association). In left-sided or left ventricular heart failure, the left side of the heart must work harder to pump the same amount of blood.
AFib treatment options vary depending upon the severity of the disease and the underlying reasons or diseases that caused it to occur. Atrial fibrillation, also known as AFib, must be treated on a case-by-case basis in order to reduce the risk of other health problems or complications. Understanding AFib AFib occurs when the uppermost chambers of the heart beat irregualry and uncoordinated with the lower two chambers. AFib often causes a fast heartbeat that is irregular, chest pain, difficulty breathing, heart palpitations, weakness and dizziness. AFib episodes may happen sporadically or become chronic and occur regularly.