Cardiovascular Disease Case Study

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INTRODUCTION Periodontal diseases is a common infection which involves the periodontium. The periodontium are the tissues surrounding the tooth. Cardiovascular diseases on the other hand is a condition that involves the narrowing of blocked blood vessels that can lead to a series of conditions such as cardiac arrest, angina or stroke due to age, hypertension, diabetics, obesity, serum lipid concentration and abnormal habits. Periodontal diseases have been associated with cardiovascular diseases. [1] Based on researches, for the past three decades, increasing cardiovascular diseases has been sought out due to the impact of oral hygiene. [2] Cardiovascular diseases is the leading cause of death throughout the nations of the world and the main…show more content…
The presence of periodontal infections may lead to bacteria growth that can harm the cardiovascular system due to arteriosclerotic plaques. [5] The objective of the study is to assess the oral hygiene status viz. dental status, gingival and periodontal status and mucosal changes and inflammatory components viz. cytokines in cardiovascular patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS A group of 50 patients are taken for the study at a dental hospital in Malaysia. The data of the patients were collected upon finding out the cardiac status of the patient and the main medication prescribed to the patient. Before treatment, the saliva of the patients are collected and sent to the lab for the assessment of the salivary pH and flow rate. An assessment was carried out on the patient 's hard and soft tissue RESULTS Out of the 50 samples collected, it was found that the mean salivary pH is 7.93 and the mean for the salivary flow rate is 2.09 mL/min. The lesions that can be seen in the hard tissues are gingivitis, periodontitis as well as lesions on the periapical and carious lesions. In the soft tissues the lesions are mostly seen through inflammation, bleeding of gums and subgingival…show more content…
There were 4 patients with a past medical history of angina pectoris and 6 patients who atherosclerosis. Out of this 50 patient, the mean of the salivary pH is the highest in stroke patients and the lowest in patients with angioplasty. On the other hand, the patient with the highest salivary flow rate are observed in patients with hypercholesterolemia and the lowest salivary flow rate in patients with a past medical history of angioplasty.[13,20-21] The lesions that can be found in the hard tissues are mostly periodontal pocket, mild gingivitis,periapical lesion while on the soft tissues although lesions are absent in patients with atherosclerosis and stroke. In patients where soft tissue lesions are present, there are mainly composed of inflammation, subgingival calculus, gingival

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