Care Giver Literature Review

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Introduction Throughout the twenty-first century, the role of the nurse as a care giver has changed and evolved significantly. Nurses now carry more responsibilities than ever before but one primary goal has remained the same: to provide optimal quality care on the basis of evidence obtained through active research. Research is critical to the nursing profession as a whole, it allows the nurse to advance their knowledge base and skills in order to be the best advocate for the patient (Tingen et al. 2009). The focus of the literature review at hand is: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) in the hospital setting under the themes of hand-hygiene, source isolation and patient education. The student chose to review this topic as the…show more content…
aureus) commonly colonises the skin and nose. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is caused by a strain of bacteria that has become resistant to the antibiotics commonly used to treat ordinary staphylococcal infections. In the right setting MRSA can cause severe and at times fatal infections such as bloodstream infection (BSI), infective endocarditis, pneumonia and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). In general S. aureus is sensitive to many first-line antibiotics and infections are generally treated with penicillins and cephalosporins, which act in a similar way against S. aureus. Methicillin was the first of these agents used in clinical practice and by convention the term is used when referring to resistance to these antibiotics. S. aureus which remain sensitive to these agents are generally referred to as methicillin-sensitive S. aureus. Resistant strains of S. aureus are designated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA. MRSA was first reported internationally in 1961 and recognised as a problem in Irish hospitals in the 1980s (HSE 2007). Treatment of infection due to MRSA is complex and it can be difficult to choose the most appropriate antibiotic treatment at the outset and the range of effective antibiotics available to treat MRSA infection is more limited. In general the outcome of serious infection with MRSA tends to be less favourable. This may be related at least in part to the complexity of treatment but the outcome also relates to the general health of the patient and to variations in the virulence of different strains of S. aureus. The most common strains of MRSA are healthcare-associated and are typically seen in hospitalised patients or in those receiving treatment in other healthcare facilities such as day units and nursing homes. In recent years, a novel strain of MRSA, designated community-acquired MRSA has been recognised and can spread readily from person to person, in the
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