Career Development Literature Review

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2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 The Concept of Career Decision-Making
Career decisions are the product of an uncountable number of learning experiences made possible by encounters with the people, institutions, and events in a person’s particular environment. According to Scott (n.d), decision making can be described as a process of developing choices through any possible alternatives. Differs from Tiedeman (1963), where he suggested that career development consists of two main factors thatare action and thought which both are correlated. Tiedeman (1963) also added attention is the joint activity of thinking in relation to purpose, thus attention is one of the key point of consideration in career development.
However, Bennett et al. (1992), claimed
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2.2.2 Donald E. Super Self-Concept Theory of Career Development
This theory is created by Donald E. Super (1950) where he suggested the connection of psychology and trait-and-factor theory resulted in an individual career development. Super also stated that his self-concept will change over time and it developed as a result if of one’s experience.
For this reason, vocational counselling is seen as a process of assisting individuals to match their abilities and other traits to fulfil required accessible occupations. Based on Super in Career Research (n.d), he mentioned that there is the need to understand and predict a career. He also added, to define career, it is related to sequence of professions, occupations, and positions held during the course of a life¬time, including also ‘pre-vocational’ and ‘post-vocational’ activities. Thus, Super developed a model to explained on vocational maturity where people involved in a cycle when they experienced career transitions
Figure 2.2.2 (a) below shows Donald E. Super five life and career development stages.
Stage Age
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According to Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, (n.d), governance is defined as decision making process and the implementation of decision made. Further, good governance as described by Bohen (1995) is the responsibility and the accountability of the whole operation in an organization. There are various characteristics to associate with good governance. Firstly, is equal participation by everyone especially when it involves decision making process. Besides that, according to United Nation (2008), good governance involves efficiency where financial and human resources are applied without unused or prejudicing future

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