Carl Jung's Ideas Of Psychoanalysis

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“…one could say, with little exaggeration, that the persona is that which, in reality, one is not, but which oneself as well as others think one is.” (Jung, Memories, Dreams, Reflections 397 qtd in CW 8,p 436)
Psychoanalysis as a new theoretical study in literature emerged in the twentieth century and has greatly influenced literary productions that are the resultant of the mind’s encounter with physical or social realities. Psychoanalysis had been an age-old approach, as early as fourth century B.C., used by Aristotle in his theory of poetry who postulates the definition of tragedy as the combination of the emotions of pity and terror to produce catharsis. One of the icons of Renaissance, Sir Philip Sidney highlighted the moral effects of
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He also explored other realms like Eastern and Western philosophies, alchemy, astrology, sociology and literature. His noteworthy contributions were the concepts of psychological archetypes, synchronicity and the collective unconscious. He stated that every individual possessed beneath his personal consciousness, the notion of collective unconscious that comprised archetypes. Annis Pratt, the American psychoanalytic critic, in her book Archetypal Patterns in Women’s Fiction, discussed neurosis and psychosis that are manifested in the unconscious. These characteristics were observed in women’s fiction and have influenced many modern writers like James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, D.H. Lawrence and critics like Terry Eagleton, I.A. Richards and T.S. Eliot. The modern writers believed psychoanalysis to be a major influence in poetic creation. Psychoanalytic writers’ works exhibit the transformation of one’s deepest desires and anxieties into socially acceptable meaning. Joseph Campbell, a psychoanalytic critic, and an ardent follower of Jung, in his book, The Power of Myth, discussed at length his own theory that most myths, stories, and religions share the same type of images that represent the hero’s journey to reach a state of maturity which represents the wholeness…show more content…
They are Persona, Anima/ Animus, Shadow, Ego and the Self. Man is a combination of good and evil. The positive and the negative traits are inherent in him but they are not viable qualities to be expressed for one’s survival in a society. Hence he has to adopt a trait that makes a connection with the world and his society as well as with his self. This interface termed as Persona is an archetype that acts as a cushion from cultural shocks between the person and the society. Persona has multitudinous roles for man’s sustenance in society. As a mask it holds a veil for the personality to hide under it. In Ezra Pound’s Personae: The Shorter Poems, the poet uses characters to express his thoughts of other writers or people in real life. He uses his Persona to point out his disagreement with other writers of his time. T.S.Eliot uses his personae like Alfred Prufrock and Sweeney to articulate his disillusionment against the degraded values of the twentieth century. Marc Pickren in his article, ‘Jungian Theory of the Persona’ talks about the Persona as, “Navigating the territory between the physical world we interact with daily and our inner lives, the persona forms from influences of values, culture and societal conditioning.”( Pickren 2010) The individual can cover his negative self and uncover his true self, whenever the persona permits. So the
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