Carl Rogers was a humanistic psychologist who agreed with the assumptions of Abraham Maslow, but added that for a person to “grow,” they need an environment that provides them with sincerity (openness and self-disclosure), acquiescence (being seen with unconditional positive regard), and compassion (being listened to and understood). Without these, rapports and healthy personalities will not develop as they should, much like a tree will not grow without sunlight and water. Since reality counseling technique obtains to help individuals who experience difficulty in their relationships with others, forming a connection with the counselor is considered to be an important beginning in reality counseling technique. This connection is considered by reality therapists to be
The therapist’s congruence may be applied for other purposes, such as contravening attitudes or situations of substance that others may have employed upon the client. The client will always maintain experiences, whether good or bad, those fit his self-actualization, and reject expertise that is unconnected to self-actualization. These 'fitting' encounters are treasurable because they encompass our "need for constructive concern." A mentor with an appealing and honest tactic gives the client a
In 19th century, Sigmund Freud discovered the psychoanalysis theory that has constructed a foundation about understanding the relationship between preconscious, conscious and unconscious minds later (Freud, 1904). From a psychodynamic point of view, Freud confident that human personality is dominant by the unconscious parts of our personality those we neither have responsiveness nor power over it; besides, Freud also discover a personality model to explain the connection of the minds by using id (unconscious), ego (conscious) and superego (preconscious) (Feldman, 2010). Freud (1923/1960), Freud used his personality structural model as an analogy to explain human mind where id represents our pleasure principle; ego represents our reality principle;
Other people have to treat me kindly and fairly: and 3 my life condition could not be frustrating but rather should enjoyable. Once people convert their important desires into demands, they often create dysfunctional, exaggerated beliefs, such as “Because I’m not performing well, as I absolutely must. I’m an adequate person.” By learning the different theory in counseling it will help to become more competent counselors by serving as a “road map.” Novice counselors can rely on theory to provide direction and help ensure they will be effective with clients. Theory also help experienced counselors by facilitating their integration of self and external knowledge. Thus learning theory can contribute to be one way to be fit on the position of leading the right path of those who has problems, difficulties and issues of the
In the early 1960’s the humanistic movement was developed in America, this was termed ‘third force’ as it was aimed to replace the two main approaches such as behaviourism and psychoanalysis. Some theories are concerned with human experiences such as uniqueness, meaning, freedom and choice. Empathy is where you are putting yourself in someone else’s shoes and seeing how they feel. Carl Rogers (1902-1987) was an American psychologist who believed that personality formed a result of our strivings to reach our full human potential. He is one of the pioneering founders of the humanistic approach, he moved away from traditional psychoanalysis and developed client- centred psychotherapy.
The conception of such leads to an internal moral conflict where one compares and weighs the consequences of their fates. Conflicted with multiple impending fates, the individual has a choice to either embrace their uncertain fate, knowing they cannot prevent such, or reject their uncertain destiny, becoming negligent toward the possibilities of what is to come. When an individual is tasked with dealing with a future in which their lives are on the line, they will undergo the depiction of many futures. The result of which, will prompt the individual to either accept their fates, knowing that their fates are not preventable, or, challenge their futures, leading to the neglecting of what lies within the uncertain future; the futures born from ones
Bertrand Russell and The Origin of Analytical philosophy, Ray Monk & Anthony Palmer (ed), Thommes Press: England, 1996, pp.201. By Michael Wiame In the twentieth century many characterize the intellectual origins of and found to be Russell and Moore however later scholars like M Dummett refuted that Russell was relegated to the sideline of 20th Century philosophical development not by unearthing the undiscovered evidence but by the invocation of the reliable witness, a zeitgeist (spirit of the time or age) (p.viii). the reason why Russell is placed at the periphery of analytical development is the revaluation of role Gottlob Frege plays in the development. Ray Monk contribution On Denoting, points precisely that Frege’s Foundation of Arithmetic
There are a variety of different methods doctors can utilize to increase the autonomy of their patients. The first might seem rather obvious, but it is to tell patients the truth in an unbiased manner. There are numerous reasons that physicians should be honest with their patients. Weir underscores this sentiment by summarizing “ Truthtelling is a moral obligation in medicine because of the fiduciary relationship between physician and patient” (Weir, 212). The author means that doctors should tell the truth because it is scared to the fundamental relationship between the practitioner and their charge.
Secondly, he discussed the lay trauma theory in term of enlightenment thinking and psychoanalytic version. The enlightenment version signifying that trauma is kind of rational response to abrupt changes. The psychoanalytic version suggested that "places a model of unconscious emotional fears and cognitively distorting mechanisms of psychological defence between the external shattering event and the actor’s internal traumatic response"(2004:5). However, he rejected the idea that the events in and themselves create the collective trauma, events not intrinsically traumatic. "The trauma is socially mediated attribution" (Alexander,
But it is very hard to choose and to change a person’s emotions directly. It is easier to change his or her thinking and behavior. So Reality Therapists approach changing “what a person does” as a key to changing how a person feels and to get his or her wants. Further, while traditional psychoanalytic and counseling often focuses on past events, Reality Therapy solutions lie in the present and the future events. The therapist asks the client to make a value judgment about his or her current behavior which presumably is not