Carol Myers-Scotton: The Markedness Theory

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The Markedness model (sociolinguistic theory) proposed by Carol Myers-Scotton is one account of the social indexical motivation for code switching (Auer et peter 1998). The model was developed in 1993 with its initial focus to social motivation; here, the speaker makes choices because of what they intend to achieve and the listener in turn won’t be side-lined as they are also part of the interaction. Markedness according to Myers-Scotton (1998:4) relates to the choice of one linguistic variable over other possible varieties; i.e. it explains the choices bilinguals make in conversations. Another idea of this model is that speakers enter a conversation with a similar expectation whether with a norm language or intention. According to the model,…show more content…
Communication accommodation theory This theory developed by Howard Giles was first known as speech accommodation theory in 1971. The main idea about this theory is that speakers accommodate their speech to people who they like and deviate from the person they don’t like or feel like interacting with. The environment of interaction also determines participant behavior. The theory describes two accommodation processes which are convergence and divergence. Convergence is a scheme where speakers try to assimilate each other’s behavior. The speakers try to familiarize or display similarities such as body movement, gestures, our choice of words, our non-verbal communication, postures etc. lastly; the convergence is based on attraction. If a speaker isn’t attracted to a particular thing in another speaker, there is every possibility he won’t accommodate much interaction. Divergence on the other hand is the direct opposite of convergence. Speakers have made a choice not to associate themselves in a particular topic; both still wants to maintain social distance. When an individual tries to engage in convergence and over-does it, it leads to over accommodation. When a speaker over does or over regulates effort in responding to a conversation, it leads to

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