Stratum Lucidum III. Stratum Granulosum IV. Stratum Spinosum V. Stratum Basale 1.2.2. Dermis It is middle layer which contain connective tissue, sweat gland, hair follicles, collagen, blood vessels, nerves and various glands. Function of dermis layer is to provide strength, elasticity and to cushion the body stress and strain.
Cortical bones, also known as compact bones, form the hard-external layer of all bones that helps protect and strengthen the medullary cavity, which is filled with bone marrow. Within the cortical bones are lamellae called osteons. Osteons are aligned in the same direction along lines of stress, which hold the bone’s blood vessels and nerve fibers. These bones primarily help to resist bending and fracturing. Trabecular bones, also known as spongy bones, form the inner layer of all bones that helps to reduce the density of bones allowing the ends of long bones to compress when subject to stress.
Then finally there are 26 bones in your vertebral column, these are the bones that run down your back including the sacrum and the coccyx. The appendicular part of the skeletal system supports the appendages of vertebrates. The appendicular skeleton includes the arms, hands legs, the shoulder girdle and pelvic girdle. Of the 206 bones in the human body 126 of these make up the appendicular skeleton. Due to the appendicular bones being found in the hands, arms and legs they allow more movement than possible with the axial skeleton found at the core.
Joints allow movement in the human body. The bones forming the joint are held together by ligaments. The 3 types of joints fibrous or immovable an example would be the skull. Cartilaginous or slightly moveable an example would be the vertebrae. Synovial or freely movable would include, ball and socket for example the hip.
Epiphyseal line is area of developing tissue and everyone has at least two, one at each end of bonePeriosteum is outer membrane which contains connective tissue, nerves and capillaries. It allows blood in and out of bone and help with growth and repair (PubMedhealth,n.d). compact bone provides the strength and protection of bones. It provides strong mechanical layers which with
The Structure of the Buccal Cavity or “Mouth” The Oral Mucosa Every part of the buccal cavity is covered in a layer of oral mucosa. Oral mucosa is a protective layer of lining that made of a mucous membrane and keratin. This layer protects the buccal cavity and helps to defend the body from being invaded by harmful bacteria, germs, and parasites. The Gingivae or “Gums” The buccal cavity is more than teeth and by understanding the structure of the buccal cavity, one can learn how to care for one’s oral hygiene appropriately. The gums are the pink tissue that holds and not only support the part of the tooth that is visible, but also the root of the tooth.
The integumentary system- This system is overlaying the outer body. • Anatomical location- The integumentary system is superior or external to the body. The organs that make up this system are the skin, glands, nails, hair, and sense receptors. In addition, the skeletal frame is superficial to the cutaneous membrane in the human body. • Key Anatomical features- The skin, nails, hair, and glands.
Peristalsis is a natural process of area contraction and expansion along the length of the tube/channel. The peristaltic flows of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids have immense applications in physiology and industry. In physiology, many body parts such as stomach, gastrointestinal tract and small intestines are the common examples in which peristaltic waves appear. The peristaltic phenomenon has great importance in the movement of food bolus in the digestive system, chyme motion in the gastrointestinal tract, transport of lymph in the lymphatic vessels, movement of ovum in the fallopian tube, passing of bile from gall bladder to duodenum, urine flow from kidneys to bladder, etc. This mechanism is also involved in plant physiology which is
The supraspinatus originates at the supraspinatus fossa of the scapula and inserts at the greater tubercle of the humerus. Its function is to assists the deltoid abduct the arm while helping protect and stabilize the head of the humerus in the G/H joint. The infraspinatus originates at the infraspinatus fossa on the posterior surface of the scapula and inserts at the greater tubercle of the humorous. Its function is to adduct and laterally rotates the shoulder at the G/H joint while helping protect and stabilize the head of the humerus in the G/H
The rearfoot consists of four bones the distal side of the tibia and fibula (leg bones), the calcaneus (heel bone), and the talus. The plantar fascia originates from the medial calcaneal ligaments, dividing into a medial, central and lateral band that attaches to the superior surface of the abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, and abductor digiti minimi musculature, respectively. The medial longitudinal arch (MLA) of the foot aids in distributing the force attributed to the weight bearing. The MLA of the foot resembles two rods a rear rod consisting of the calcaneus, talus and an anterior rod consisting of the navicular, three cuneiforms, and the first three metatarsals. These rods are connected at their base by the plantar fascia.
It is also noted that where two bones meet is called a joint. There are many types of joints that allow for the body to move in different ways, notable ones: hinge, ball and socket, pivot and some in the skull. The materials used was a virtual skeleton, a cursor, a box, bones, and brains.
They can exist individually, as do bacteria, or they may work together, taking on specialized tasks to create a more complex organism. However, all living organisms share certain characteristics, which are discussed below. Cells are made of cytoplasm. Cytoplasm is a specially organized solution of salt, nutrients, and complex molecules in water. The composition of cytoplasm may vary among different types of cells, but its purpose is the same – it provides a medium in which complex reactions can occur.
An articulation is the weakest point on the skeleton however the structure is capable of resisting strong forces that may threaten its normal alignment . A normal structure of a joint includes a coated layer of tough, slippery tissue that coats the ends of each bone known as an articular cartilage. A cartilage acts as a shock absorber and keeps the end of the bones from being crushed. For instance the knee, also known as the biggest and most complex joint in our body has an extra cartilage known as a semi-circular cartilages, these cartilages or menisci helps with the prevention of the femur to rock side to side on the tibia as well as acting as a shock absorber . Including the knee osteoarthritis can affect all the joints in our body, the most commonly affected joints are found in the neck and back, the hips, hands as well as the metacarpals.