A new divide in art and religion occurred during the 17th century. The Reformation occurred and caused a major divide between Protestants and Catholics. In northern Europe, Protestantism took root, especially in the city of Amsterdam. In southern Europe, Catholicism stood fast, especially in Rome. In this paper I will argue that Amsterdam and Rome developed unique political and religious environments that created two different painting styles within the Baroque period. These different environments led to two very different subject materials: secular in Amsterdam and non-secular in Rome. Despite some similarities, these differences distinctly separate Protestant Baroque in the north of Europe and Counter-Reformation Baroque in the south of Europe and two paintings can accurately portray these differences and similarities: “The Calling of Saint Matthew” by Caravaggio and “The Art of Painting” by Vermeer.
Giovanni Battista Gaulli, also known as Il Baciccio was a famous painter in the Baroque and Catholic Counter-Reformation period. His work of art “Triumph of the Name of Jesus” deals with classical and tenebrism themes, using light and dark contrasts with illusionistic perspective painting. “The nave fresco, with its contrast of light and dark, spills dramatically over its frame, then turns into sculptured figures, combining painting, sculpture, and architecture” (Janson, p.673). The illusion of clouds and angels floating down through an opening in the church's vault shows the technique called trompe-l'oiel.
An Italian artist, architect, poet, and philosopher, Leon Battista Alberti was the epitome of the Renaissance man. His expertise in these fields, as well as many other professions, led him to become one of the most significant figures in the fifteenth century. In 1435, Alberti authored On Painting, a didactic book where he laid down the rudiments of this practice for fellow and aspiring artists. Judging from the principles expounded in it, Leon Battista Alberti would have admired several features of Neroccio de’ Landi’s Annunciation (1475), but also disliked an element of that painting. He would have commended Neroccio’s spatial construction, variety in composition, and representation of emotions since they all accorded with the methods that
The Baroque period was identified as the “Age of Absolutism” because it was a period where rulers practiced their full power to control subjects. Also during the Baroque time frame music became more leant about where it was played. Instead it only being played at churches and occasionally in some courts, it was being played at specific functions and operas. It was at this time that operas were established for the first time in history. Musicians at this time were employed for aristocrat’s courts, churches and operas although they were considered high positions yet still viewed as servants. Some characteristics of Baroque music focused on the unity of mood, rhythm, dynamics and melodies. As for texture it consisted of being polyphonic with an emphasis on the highest and lowest melodies. Also the importance of bass and soprano and imitation were present. Word painting and symbolism kept making an appearance too. Chords and basso continuo were key elements to this period. A basso continuo is an accompaniment made up of bass parts usually played by two instruments. It was here that baroque orchestras started to gather which contained about ten to forty musicians. Through
Starting with an artist like Bernini who under the patronage system created some of the most revered sculptures of the baroque era. Born in Naples, Italy Bernini got a lot of his patronage form Italians. One of his more notable patronages includes the sculpture of “The Ecstasy of St. Teresa” which was commission by the Cornaro family for their personal chapel. The sculpture represents a deeply religious act and was used in part to show off the wealth of the Conaro family. Bernini also sculpted the family themselves as spectators of the sculpture. This
Perspective is considered one of the most important aspects of Renaissance art. Artists such as Masaccio, Leonardo Da Vinci and Raphael made the use of this device in many of their work. Thanks to Filippo Brunelleschi, who ‘invented’ and developed this technique called one point linear perspective. The intention of perspective in Renaissance art is to depict reality, reality being the ‘truth’. By simulating the three dimensional space on a flat surface, we in fact incorporate this element of realism into it.
A major event that shaped the life when the fresco was created was the “Sack of Rome” which occurred on the 6th of May 1527 (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2017). This event is especially significant to the painting because according to Florence Inferno, Pope Clemente VII was “the first patron” and had “special wishes”, however, was unable to oversee the real painting rather next-in-line Pope Paul III who had the honor. The “Sack of Rome” was most likely the cause of why Pope Clemente VII was unable to see the real painting, because according to Encyclopædia Britannica the “Sack of Rome” caused “an orgy of destruction and massacre, terrorizing the population and humiliating Pope Clement VII” , consequently, leading to his death in the year 1534.
The Renaissance and Baroque periods of music are two very similar and different eras. The Renaissance which began after the end of the Middle Ages in 1450 and ended the beginning of the 1600s, this is where the Baroque period starts. The beginning of the Renaissance period was compromised of sacred and religious music cultivating from the middle ages. Before the Renaissance period music had to be copied and re-written by hand, which was a very difficult task to do continuously. During the Renaissance period however, printing was invented, which made producing music easier and also changed a lot of other things in other areas. The Baroque period on the other hand, spanning 150 years from the beginning of the 1600s to 1750, was divided into three parts: The Early Baroque period, The Middle Baroque period and The Late Baroque period. While these two eras start right after each other, there are a lot of differences between them, this shows how much music can evolve through time.
It hosted a number of new styles and and thought process that was also not just for the rich, but the middle class. It experienced more of an emotionalism and was a psychological exploration not just by the artist but the viewers themselves (Detrick “Baroque”). A photographer today uses still lifes that really justify the baroque style of art that was dark and deformed. Tara Sellios uses her art to “lure unsuspecting viewers into her twisted Baroque still lifes” (huffingtonpost.com). The eleven contemporary stills i looked at by her were pretty messed up stuff. It was dark and full of death with a hint of life. It really showed the bizarre art work style of Baroque that explores the dark side of
According to the Dictionary, an allegory is “the use of symbols in a story, picture, to convey a hidden or ulterior meaning, typically a moral or political one” Within the Inferno each Canto is functioning as an allegory by reflecting an aspect from Alighieri’s life through the sins and sinners in each Canto. Alighieri’s banishment was his journey through hell, this is reflected throughout The Inferno. Allegory is one of the most present literary devices found within The Inferno, The author, or Alighieri, use Allegory to explain not only his own political beliefs, ideologies, but also his past experiences that led to his exile and redemption in the eyes of God. If the reader explores even deeper into the text they can see that Alighieri is
Florentine type of depiction spread widely due to the painting. Its popularity among the masses can be understood by the fact that the image has been used by most religious foundation in expression of Jesus and His mother Marry during the child’s tender age (Gelfand, 2000). It’s one of the most treasured paintings in the world. When compared to the Italian standards, the panel is said to be very minor, but its regard is extensively expressed with respect to many other paintings that are said to be, in the ancient times, the most regarded.
Charmagne McNewHUMN1101Final Research Project Part 316 April 2016Caravaggio’s Judith Beheading HolofernesThe Baroque time period is thought of as a period of artistic style that used alarge amount of motion and easily interpreted detail in order to create drama, tension,and other expressions in their pieces of art. The style began around 1600 in Rome,Italy, and spread to most of Europe. Thanks to the Catholic Church, this time periodwas able to grow and played an enormous role in the artworks ability to that the artsability to speak to the viewer religiously and emotionally. Caravaggio is most famous forhis dark and twisted artwork. This particular piece is an oil canvas painted in 1598. Hisability to make his artwork appear very dramatic
Born on July 15, 1606, Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn entered a family of ten as the eighth child in Leiden, Netherlands. Two of his siblings died as infants which seemed just to be the beginning of loss that Rembrandt would experience. He did not come from a family of artists, his father a miller and his mother a baker, and started preparation for college at a Latin school where he studied Biblical and classical literature. At the age of 14, Rembrandt was enrolled in the University of Leiden; however, the material he was learning did not interest him. Instead of continuing his studies at university, he became apprenticed to a local artist before continuing his learning in art with a man in Amsterdam. After six months in Amsterdam, Rembrandt had
4) is another outstanding example of Raphael’s Roman portraits. At the centre of this harmonious composition Raphael adds a curious psychological note in the melancholy eyes that illuminate the cardinal’s pallid and exhausted countenance. The portrait has been drawn in accordance with Leonardo’s opinion that portraits can be drawn best with a dark background. A reference to dark backgrounds may remind the reader of Raphael’s Florentine period under the influence of Leonardo when he produced “Granduca Madonna” (fig. 5), the masterpiece where he was able to draw exquisite rhythmical modulations out of the motionless simplicity of the design. Giorgio Vasari noted that Raphael excelled in creating effects of drapery folds disappearing into shadows and coming forward into light, and that he knew how to relate the colours of drapery to the flesh tones so that semi-nude figures did not seem cut into two. “Granduca Madonna” shows the perfect execution of the above technique to achieve softness and unity, with the semi-nude Child’s drapery blending beautifully with the tint of his flesh and the Madonna’s clothes blending elegantly with the black background with soft edges that create relief in an atmosphere of harmonious submissiveness to the
One cathedral in Malta houses one of the most famous paintings of all time. It is the St. John’s Cathedral at Valletta and the painting was done by one Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio in 1608 as payment to the Pope for becoming a knight in Malta after being exiled from Rome (Stone 161). Surprisingly, it hangs on the oratory wall, the same spot where knighting and defrocking of the artist took place. No other work of art has ever had a more profound effect on me than the masterpiece, ‘The Beheading of John the Baptist’.