In late prophase I, homologous chromosomes pair and become a tetrad. Homologous chromosomes are chromosomes that are very similar. One comes from a mother, and one from a father. For homologous chromosomes, they have the same gene, but they can have different alleles, which means it can have an alternative form of a gene, that may create a different trait. In metaphase I, spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes.
SOPHIA COLLEGE Protein-DNA Interaction MAYUR GAIKWAD 05/05/2015 INTRODUCTION Protein–DNA interactions play a major role in all fields of genetics from regulation and transcription of individual genes to repair of damaged sequences, even to the stabilization of DNA in chromatin and the replication of entire genomes. It is estimated that 2–3% of prokaryotic and 6–7% of eukaryotic genes code for DNA-binding proteins. Additionally, many of these proteins do not merely bind DNA, but also interact with other proteins and sometimes, as is shown in the example of RNA polymerase, only display theirfull activity when organized in multimeric complexes. SEQUENCE-SPECIFIC DNA BINDING Protein recognition of specific sequences on the DNA double
Rho Factor (ρ) Introduction Rho (Greek lettering - ρ) factor is an essential prokaryotic protein. Rho forms a hexameric ring structure with an open configuration. It contains six subunit laterally organised with a distance of 12 Angstroms at the opening. This is to accommodate the single stranded RNA molecule. In E. coli, Rho is a 274.6 kD hexamer with identical subunits.
environment and diet). A large amount of genetic diseases are caused by mutations which change the genetic makeup or Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) of an individual. Mutations can be broken up into two distinct types of mutations; point mutation and gene mutation. Genetic diseases involve the change in multiple nucleotides which are the building blocks of DNA. Such diseases therefore are a result of gene mutations as they require the change in the sequence of multiple nucleotides in a DNA molecule.
Natural cloning also occurs in mammals, including humans. Twins are produced, when a fertilised egg splits. This split creates multiple embryos with almost the same genetic information. (Information gathered from this year’s Biology textbook) Artificial Cloning: There are three types of artificial cloning, namely gene, reproductive and therapeutic cloning. Gene: this is when a desire gene is located and cloned from DNA extracted from the organism that contains the desired gene.
There are 4 pairs of proteins (histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4) involved in forming the protein core for the DNA to coil around. The DNA strand wraps twice around the core and continues to the next nucleosome. H1 histone protein links the nucleosomes to each other. Nucleosomes then coil tightly to form chromatids which are tightly condensed to form a full chromosome. This gives the chromatin a beaded appearance under an electron
THE SEQUENCING AND ASSEMBLING OF THE WHOLE GENOME OF AN ORGANSIMISM The sequencing and assembling of the whole genome is designed to help people understand and visualize how long a strand of DNA can be constructed from smaller overlapping DNA sequence. The genome sequencing is a very important aspect in molecular genetics because it help and gives us an understanding on how a genome completely works, How genes combine together and direct growth, development and maintain the whole body of an organism. The body of an organism is so complex and more complicated but it helps to study the gene expression of a specific tissue or organs and most importantly to study the human variation, how humans are closely related to other organisms. There are
Genetic modification is the manipulation of genes through gene isolation, modification of genes so that they function better, preparation of genes that are inserted into new species, and transgene development. Deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA, is the genetic information of any organism and carries the genetic instructions for all the characteristics that makes up that particular organism. Changes that occur in an animal’s genetic makeup can be passed along to the next generation of animals. Technology has been used in plants and microorganisms. There are numerous pros and cons when dealing with genetically modified animals (Ormandy, Dale, & Griffin, 2011).
He believed that complex creatures evolved from different ancestors over time. He noted that random genetic mutations occur within an organism’s genetic code and that mutations are preserved because they age survival. He called this process the natural selection. It is supported by evidence of scientific discipline, geology, genetics and developmental biology. Charles Darwin discovered Darwinism.
Recombinant DNA molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome. Recombinant DNA is possible because DNA molecules from all organisms share the same chemical structure. They differ only in the nucleotide sequence within that identical overall structure.Recombinant DNA is the general name for a piece of DNA that has been created by the combination of at least two strands. Recombinant DNA molecules are sometimes called chimeric DNA, because they can be made of material from two different species, like the mythical chimera. R-DNA technology uses palindromic sequences and leads to the production of sticky and blunt ends.The DNA sequences used in the construction of recombinant DNA molecules can originate from any species.