Helicobacter Pylori

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Introduction: Helicobacter pylori are a ubiquitous organism that can be seen in 50% of general population. Its association with various gastric disorders are well established in numerous studies after its discovery in 1983. Peptic ulcer disease is the most studied disease related to H Pylori infection. H. pylori are seen in 90% of duodenal ulcer and 75% of gastric ulcer Patients. This bacterium is also involved in the pathogenesis of several extra gastric diseases, such as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas ( Maltomas) gastroesophageal reflux disease ( GERD ) and gastric carcinomas. In some population Pylori can be seen associated in 80% of gastric cancers. Aim of the study: To study the association of H pylori in benign and malignant…show more content…
In developing countries, most individuals are infected during childhood. Family members are at increased risk of infection.[6] A number of occupations show increased rates of H.Pylori infestation, mainly health care workers. Infection with H.Pylori is a chronic disease which will not resolve spontaneously without specific treatment. The gastric contents are normally nearly sterile as a consequence of the acidic luminal environment and the effects of gastric emptying.[7] H.Pylori has adapted to this hostile ecological environment and displays a number of features that permits its entry into the surface mucus layer, attachment to gastric epithelial cells, evasion of immune responses, and persistent colonization.Because of its important role in disease pathogenesis, the organism has been intensively studied. The H.Pylori genome encodes approximately 1500 proteins and contains 1.65million base pairs. H.Pylori expressses a number of novel proteins including urease. Urease…show more content…
Pylori infection is on a steep decline in most of the western countries mainly due to the success of combination therapies and improve personal hygiene and community sanitation to prevent re-infection.The situation is not improving in many of the developing countries due to failure of treatment regimes and emergence of durg resistance. The infection in some cases leads to chronic superficial gastritis, chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma.Humans are the only important reservoir of H.Pylori.[12] Children may acquire the organism from their parents (more often from the mother) or from other children. H.pylori is easily cultured from vomitus and gastroesophageal refluxate and is less easily cultured from stool. One of the most distinctive features of H.pylori is the genetic diversity between clinical isolates obtained from different patient populations. Most H. polyri isolates can be discriminated from others by DNA profiling or sequencing of corresponding genes due to mainly a high degree of sequence divergence between orthologs (3-5%).H.Pylori infestation is followed by continuous gastric inflammation in virtually all individuals. Worldwide, H.pylori-induced gastritis
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