However, regardless of classification, the translocation of pathogens into the peritoneal cavity initiates a cascade of inflammatory responses (Mabewa, Seni, Chalya, Mshana, & Gilyoma, 2015). This response is co-stimulated by mesothelial cells, and characterized by an accumulation of neutrophils and pro-inflammatory cytokines (McGuire et al., 2015). In primary peritonitis the infection occurs, but the source of intra-abdominal infection is unidentified, this is known as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Secondary peritonitis arises from abdominal trauma, organ damage, occurs secondary to medical procedures, and internal leaks affecting the peritoneum. Likewise, tertiary peritonitis is defined as a recurrent or persistent infection after 48 hours of adequate medical management of secondary peritonitis (Henderson, Nguyen, Said, & Nazzal, 2017).
INTRODUCTION: Voiding dysfunction is complication of urinary system. It is problem in bladder muscle and urethra. There are two types of urinary problem are retention and incontinence.
Elevation of the intraocular pressure (fluid pressure inside the eye) is considered as a risk factor for some ocular disorders specially glaucoma, which can eventually lead to blinding. Current treatments for this disease focus on lowering intraocular pressure (Zeng et al. 2010). Such pressure elevation within the eye is believed to be due to an increase in the resistance to aqueous humour outflow from the eye, but the exact origin of this resistance increase has not been determined yet (Johnson 2006). The physiological aspects of aqueous humour outflow pathway have been extensively reviewed (R Tripathi 1974; RC Tripathi 1974; Bill 1975; Bill & Mäepea 1994;
• Too many investigations sometimes aggravate the symptoms of functional bowel disorder Hypothesis: Most of the chronic diarrhoea cases can effectively evaluate and managed in the out-patient department with minimum resources. Objective(s): Primary objective: To evaluate the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients presenting with chronic diarrhoea in the out-patient setting (Ambulatory Care Unit) of Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b. Secondary objective: 1) To identify the predisposing factors of chronic diarrhea. 2) To identify the offending microorganism from stool of chronic diarrhea 3) To evaluate the factors associated with repeated health resource utilization 4) To examine the psychosocial factors and its impact on patients' quality of life. 5) To determine the frequency of organic and functional gastrointestinal symptoms specially IBS among chronic diarrhea patient.
In an asymptomatic subject a hypertrophied muscle will obstruct and result in hazy interpretation of radiological assessment of this region. Difficulties in endoscopic procedure and electro myographic studies may also result from such a reversal
Acute pain can cause significant physiological and psychological effects. The physiological effects of acute pain involve changes in cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, metabolic, gastrointestinal and hemostasis (Pain Community Center.org, 2013). The patients’ experience of acute pain can be explained by pain theories such as gate control theory (Moayedi & Davis, 2013). Theories of pain There are a number of theories that have been postulated to describe the
Myelin damage disrupts communication between your brain and the rest of your body. Ultimately, the nerves themselves may deteriorate a process that's currently irreversible.” – (Unkown. (2014). Multiple Sclerosis. Available: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/multiple-sclerosis/basics/definition/con-20026689.
As a young girl, I simply thought that doctors just treated diseases. When one was sick they went to the doctor, the doctor diagnosed them and gave them a suitable treatment. However, as a first year medical student I now know that this is not the case. In modern society doctors don’t treat diseases- they treat the people who have the diseases. It’s not just medical students or people in the medical profession who know this- modern society as a whole has come to accept the fact that doctors are no longer medical scientists but carers who put their patients needs first and not the disease or illness they may have.
A Neuro-Immune Approach In Understanding Acute Kidney Injury Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a significant health concern. The primary causes of AKI are ischemia, sepsis and nephrotoxicity. Acute kidney injury is mediated by both adaptive and innate immune systems. The role of the nervous system in the activation of immune response and vice- versa is becoming a topic of interest in acute kidney injury.
You shouldn’t worry about the effects of the medicine, because the exhausting nausea and vomiting affects you and your baby. By taking prescribed medicines not only you, but also your baby will find relief. • Let yourself get distracted- Whenever you experience nausea or an urge to vomit, try and think of something that currently occupies your mind besides the pregnancy. Sometimes it works if you set your mind on something else and ignore the morning sickness altogether.
There are drugs such as Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for persons at high risk for HIV take medicine to decrease chances of getting infected. PrEP is also famous from stopping HIV from taking hold and spreading throughout your body. It is highly effective for patients with HIV, however, they must take their medicine consistently. Nevertheless, the average HIV patient can live their lives long and successfully, this is all coming from research made to help defeat HIV. The more research that comes along with looking for a cure, it makes patients look at a new hope and making their lives a lot
This paper will be looking at the pathophysiologic condition- Multiple Sclerosis(MS), specifically exploring the pathophysiological process of the disease, signs and symptoms accompanied, and treatments identified as therapies targeting the symptoms. According to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society (2016), multiple sclerosis is defined as “unpredictable, often disabling disease of the central nervous system that disrupts the flow of information within the brain, and between the brain and the body.” Although the etiology or cause of MS remains unknown, there is much research being conducted to categorize influences of many factors contributing to the onset of the disease. Borazanci et al. 2009 conclude that a mixture of genetics and environmental
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been found to be a contributing factor associated with pulmonary fibrosis. GERD is a digestive disorder where the stomach 's acid backs up into the esophagus. Prolonged or left untreated, the introduction of the stomach acid into the respiratory system can produce eventual scarring that may lead to pulmonary fibrosis. Genetics 4.
Norag Lee claims,” Longer duration of urinary catheter drainage, positive contact precautions status and a history of catheterization appear to be associated with a higher risk of catheter associated urinary tract infection in hospitalized pediatric patients. Physicians should attempt to decrease the duration of catheterization, especially in patients who meet these criteria, to minimize the risk of catheter associated urinary tract infection.” HAIs may be caused by any infectious agent, including bacteria (gram-positive and gram-negative), fungi, and viruses, as well as other less common types of pathogens. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the most common pathogenic bacterium of nosocomial infections are Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Certain fungi such as Candida albicans and aspergillus, as well as, viruses such as Respiratory Syncytial Virus and influenza can also lead to hospital-acquired
She uses Biotene toothpaste and mouthwash, artificial tears, a special nasal rinse, and sometimes prednisone to suppress inflammation. The special toothpaste and mouthwash is to prevent tooth decay as this can be common with lack of saliva in the mouth. However, none of these medications worked for her better than yoga and meditation which she began to practice a few years after being diagnosed. She realized stress and anxiety were factors in the triggering of her signs and symptoms.