Roger L Martin expanded many notable business concepts used by numerous companies in the world today, including integrative thinking. Martin addressed integrative thinking in his Harvard Business Review article, “How Successful Leaders Think” and in his book “The Opposable Mind”. Defining integrative thinking, it is “the pre-disposition and capacity to hold two opposing ideas at once and creatively resolve the tension between the two ideas by generating a new one that contains elements of the others but is superior to both” (Martin, 2007). It is further defined by the four stages of decision-making: determining salience, analyzing causality, envisioning the decision architecture and achieving resolution. The lesson on integrative thinking has invoked necessary reflection on myself and on the world around me.
This chapter will discuss literature related to the strategic management and public relations, the Two-Way Symmetrical Model in the Excellent Theory of public relations, the emergence of new roles of public relations as well as analyzing and discussing the integrated marketing communication approach that could be applied by public relations practitioners to be effective and remain relevant in government organizations as well as industries. The Excellence Study There are many studies that have been conducted over the years to identify and justify the need to put public relations in strategic management process of an organization. Many evidences have unearthed the needs (Grunig & Hunt, 1984; Cutlip, Center & Broom, 1994; Drobis, 1997-1998),
This movement in fact what is called ERM ( enterprise risk management ), and many companies started to use this approach either because the rating agencies or stock exchanges require it or because it simply makes tremendous sense , however, in some cases because of government regulations. Nevertheless, says James Lam, who has written several books on the subject and is president of the eponymous ERM consultancy, James Lam & Associates in Wellesley, MA, a solid ERM framework should have four key components: governance structure and policies, risk analytics, risk management strategies, and dashboard reporting and monitoring. Every organization, no matter its size or industry sector, will need to take these components into account in putting forth their ERM strategy, Lam says. This was just one of the benefits of our ERM journey, says Linda Conrad, director of strategic business risk engineering at global insurer Zurich Financial
Although, the cross tabulation is enormously applicable two segmentation variables, there have been many attempts to solve the higher order interaction problems, for instance (Carmone & Green , 1977) showed how to cope the problem in cross tabulation. The authors firstly postulated an idea of multidimensional contingency table analysis to answer questions of which set of variables should be selected as segmentation bases and if there is any association between those selected variables. They selected four groups of variable mixture of whether or not a consumer is a customer of the firm, customer’s image of his current insurance, psychographic and demographic profiles and assigned them coding with zero and unit and ended up constructing 2×2×2×2 contingency table with 16 cells, we employed log-linear models to test those four categories are associated or not, thus the study showed how to extend the cross tabulation in help of log-linear models. (Heeler & Shields, 1979) also attempted to improve some drawbacks of cross tabulation, which is the sparse-value problem in contingency tables. More precisely, the cross tabulation
This was done before the implementation of MBO. It was recognized that the existing structure of Glaxo on functional basis had several problems related to co-ordination, conflict management and accountability. Therefore, with effect from January 1974, Glaxo was reorganized into three profit centres/ operating divisions-pharmaceuticals, foods and chemicals, besides a number of corporate departments. The new structure made a positive impact on the morale and performance of the human resources in Glaxo by providing clarity in roles and objectives. This also facilitated the implementation of MBO.
In order to present a proper evaluation of the specific research study, it is critical to determine the main attributes that are associated to the contextual framework of specific research study. The main aim of this research chapter is to provide clear identification of three differentiated concepts including service quality, customer loyalty and aspects of passenger satisfaction. For the specific purpose, a thorough analysis of the previously developed research studies has been conducting in order to identify differentiated concepts related to service quality and customer satisfaction (Aaker & Day, 1983). 3.1. Service Quality The service business industry is by nature extremely heterogeneous and consolidates altogether different operations.
These are: change in hierarchal structure by controlled environment, it introduced the horizontal control in the organization, and most focus on business strategy rather than business planning, this include a balanced scorecard (BSC) by introducing the strategic information system, methodological researches on the control system, observe the complexity, risk and uncertainty on global level, difference and control among national and organizational cultures, economic sustainability of organization. These all elements of enquiry are fundamental for the overarching frameworks of the management control system and are followed by many researchers to overcome the different issues of the fragmented fields of management control
2. Literature review: This section will include literature for beyond budgeting and most of them are provided by counselors and experience of the professionals. There are many different research studied this topic but the most important one is the research for Hope and Fraser, (2003a). Due to include deeply details about the beyond budgeting. 2.1 What is the beyond budgeting: It’s a set of principles which help company to manage its performance and decentralize its decision making process (Hope and Fraser, 2003a).likewise, CIMA Official Terminology, (2005) argued that the beyond budgeting is an information that corporate need to move beyond budgeting for the defect in budgeting particularly when used to put contract .and they argued that the traditional budgeting can replaced by many of techniques like rolling forecasts.
Stakeholder’s theory Many researchers have used stakeholder theory to understand the intrinsic knowledge behind the fundamentals of operation and the relationship among stakeholders. Therefore, consideration of the method in which effective and sustainable waste container (bottle & can) recycling system can be implemented in Nigeria and the factor that have been the constraints to waste management in Nigeria, stakeholder theory will therefore be essential to be analyzed. Without any reservation, stakeholder theory has amassed huge recognitions in the recent years not only in the field of business ethics (Moore, 1999), management science studies (Damak-Ayadi, 2005) but also in wide array of fields such as corporate strategy, economics and public policy (Damak-Ayadi, 2005), health care, law, and public policy (Freeman et, al. 2010). According to (Damak-Ayadi, 2005), it has become a focal point of many grate debates to the extents of imposing itself as a point of reference, imitating corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies (Damak-Ayadi, 2005).
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction The previous chapter discussed about the background of the problem, the statement and the objective of the study. It went further by laying out how the stakeholders are going to benefit from the study. Now this chapter is going to display the previous studies concerning the study and their related theories, the conceptual framework and the research gap. It will undertake the task of analyzing different theories about human behaviours and trend of packaging in the beverage industry around the globe and provides a thorough understanding of the dynamics involved. 2.2 Definitions of Key Concepts The key concepts under this research study includes, bottled water, packaging, bottle ease opening packaging, Product label packaging, Bottle sizes packaging, and A silent salesman.