Black newspapers and journalists were key figures in why Robinson was chosen to be the first participant in the “Great Experiment”. Without the help of black newspapers, Branch Rickey would not have been aware of Robinson’s existence. He also crushed the color barrier in baseball, which had a direct impact on the Civil Rights Era. Baseball was America’s pastime, so the work of black newspapers extended to American society as well as sports. Black newspapers lobbied white team owners to integrate the league.
He also encouraged them to pursue studies in higher education and entrepreneurship. In his famous speech known as the Atlanta Compromise Washington asked blacks to not retaliate with violence against the Jim Crow Laws, Discrimination, or other types of racist behavior. He requested that blacks pursue higher studies. This was met with fierce criticism from DuBois and in response DuBois founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to challenge Washington’s views and gain national momentum for his stance. These actions are what led to DuBois and Washington having completely contrasting viewpoint of the issue of civil rights and social
For example “We began…by checking with the street brothers. We asked them if they would be interested in forming the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, which would be based upon defending the community against the aggression of the power structure, including the military and the armed might of the police” (Newton 1973, Pg. 120). The difference of Newton’s separation strategy is that he wants to separate from the oppressive law enforcement system by instilling his own law enforcement for the Black community but while staying in the same place and not moving like how Garvey’s version of separation is. Kwame
Many in the Harlem Renaissance were part of the early 20th century Great Migration out of the South into the Negro neighborhoods of the North and Midwest. 10 As life in the South became increasingly difficult, African Americans began to migrate north in great numbers. He allowed for assistance to the black American community because he wanted racial sameness.
During the tumultuous period of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 60s, the goal for bettering the lives of African-Americans was desired by many. However, the means of attaining that goal, varied greatly among the representatives of the movement. The African-American civil rights efforts were spearheaded by men of peaceful protest for integration, such as Martin Luther King Jr., and in contrast leaders such as Malcolm X who expressed separatist ideals. Other groups of civil rights advocated took an outright violent approach, such as the Black Panthers.
Washington’s “Atlanta Compromise” speech is a highly influential agreement struck since he used so much imagery while encouraging African Americans and whites to not be resentful people mainly towards each other. He wanted to inspire African Americans to take their education seriously and also improve economical gains to support political equalities for all. Washington used a simple story to illustrate a moral to point out his call for economic comity. However, disfranchise and segregation movements started in 1890. The south treated African Americans with denigration and humiliation.
Washington and Du Bois had every intention to improve the social and political status of African Americans, but they sought different plans to achieve such goals due to their different upbringings, values, and opinions.
It all depends how you look at it. Laws that were set up weren’t always followed correctly, but laws were still being set up to protect African Americans rights. It must have been a success because now today, they are known as citizens and have the right to vote. But then again, the rise of the Klu Klux Klan and other white supremacy groups, in combination with the Black Codes, began to intimidate freed slaves and push back their civil liberties. For me, the Reconstruction was a
During the Black Civil Rights movement it was questionable what the best method was to end segregation and oppression. Throughout the many successes and failures of the time it is apparent a few of the biggest leaders were Martin Luther King jr. and Malcolm X. King took to a more peaceful protest stance to try and help integrate blacks and whites. On the other hand, Malcolm X believed white racism would never end, thus favoring separatism. Their successes and failures ultimately integrated whites and blacks, and possibly if they would have been able to work together King’s approach would have been more aggressive and to the point, while Malcolm X could have used his hostility to help with integration rather than separation.
Douglass was still actively fighting for the equality of African Americans and women despite the emergence of white supremacist organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan. (His courage contributed to find solutions ("moral transformation"5)for "slavish personality"6, which abolitionists faced a dilemma between slave and free political communities. ) Douglass declareda nation should reconstruct (recognize) itself into a new social and political order for
leadership. The Civil Rights Acts and Voting Rights Act formed a legal basis to end the segregation and discrimination that has been happening in the United States. Malcolm X influenced disparate wings of the black movement. King influenced the non-violence act to the younger African-American generation to show them that violence just causes more of a problem. The radical faction of the "Black Power" movement accepted his positions on African identification, neocolonialism, black control of the political economy of black communities, and Afro-American self-defense.
This movement opposed the notion of making government larger and handing over rights to blacks that were supposedly hard earned by other citizens (403). Richardson argues that while the government was obliged to provide blacks political equality, “social” equality needed to be earned; social equality was considered the standing an individual achieved through merit and hard work. Although blacks accepted this, those that had prospered to the “better classes” still found that discrimination was still wanton. To battle these discriminations, blacks called for protective legislation (418).
He believed we shouldn 't fight about the Jim Crow laws keep our focus on more important things education. In later years, W.E.B DuBois who once agreed with some of the strides Washington is making, will eventually turn against him for working with white men for the betterment of black people. He stood fast to blacks having equal rights by working and getting a good education. His strong arm to get widespread education to all would be called the Tuskegee Machine. In 1909 DuBois would become the co-founder of the NAACP (National Association of the Advancement of Colored People).
Whites used literacy tests such as those similar to Alabama 's in order to keep as many blacks from registering to vote. Many of the blacks during this time weren’t well educated having the literacy tests with words that they could not understand gave the whites the upper hand. A large part that played into making literacy tests were because of fear. The Whites feared that if blacks were able to exercise their constitutional right to vote they would have the ability to change the government that the whites built. The blacks would be able to voice their own opinion and change laws and regulations such as those implemented for segregation.
In order to preserve black solidarity, there should be a precise identification of group members, loyalty and common goals and values. Throughout the Civil Rights Movement, there were common goals and values between African American organizations like integration, advancement opportunities rights to full citizenship. Examples of black solidarity during the Civil Rights Movement were the March on Washington in 1963, and the Montgomery Bus Boycott, which helped to produce civil liberties. In the film “Making a way out of no way” African American leader, Booker T. Washington, argued that slaves should unite with each other and whites to obtain an education to enhance the conditions of the South. In President Obama’s speech “ A More Perfect Union,” he states, “we can move beyond some of our old racial wounds, and that in fact we have no choice if we are to continue on the path of a more perfect union,” to emphasize the importance of unity in the American society.