Black newspapers and journalists were key figures in why Robinson was chosen to be the first participant in the “Great Experiment”. Without the help of black newspapers, Branch Rickey would not have been aware of Robinson’s existence. He also crushed the color barrier in baseball, which had a direct impact on the Civil Rights Era. Baseball was America’s pastime, so the work of black newspapers extended to American society as well as sports. Black newspapers lobbied white team owners to integrate the league.
Booker T. Washington actively promoted economic collaboration of blacks and whites. He also encouraged them to pursue studies in higher education and entrepreneurship. In his famous speech known as the Atlanta Compromise Washington asked blacks to not retaliate with violence against the Jim Crow Laws, Discrimination, or other types of racist behavior. He requested that blacks pursue higher studies. This was met with fierce criticism from DuBois and in response DuBois founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to challenge Washington’s views and gain national momentum for his stance.
174). Muhammad focused primarily on supporting Black businesses to financially separate theirselves to hurt White supremacy by depriving them of the Black dollar. Huey P. Newton’s strategy of separation differed from Garvey’s specific strategy by Newton focussing on separating through stop being dependent on local and county police forces for protection. For example “We began…by checking with the street brothers. We asked them if they would be interested in forming the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, which would be based upon defending the community against the aggression of the power structure, including the military and the armed might of the police” (Newton 1973, Pg.
10 As life in the South became increasingly difficult, African Americans began to migrate north in great numbers. He allowed for assistance to the black American community because he wanted racial sameness. A major accomplishment of the Renaissance was to open the door to mainstream white periodicals and publishing houses, although the relationship between the Renaissance writers and white publishers and audiences created some controversy. Factors leading to the decline of this era include the Great
During the tumultuous period of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 60s, the goal for bettering the lives of African-Americans was desired by many. However, the means of attaining that goal, varied greatly among the representatives of the movement. The African-American civil rights efforts were spearheaded by men of peaceful protest for integration, such as Martin Luther King Jr., and in contrast leaders such as Malcolm X who expressed separatist ideals. Other groups of civil rights advocated took an outright violent approach, such as the Black Panthers. The first leader, Martin Luther King Jr., was a reverend from Atlanta, Georgia, who advocated peace and tolerance between all races.
Washington’s “Atlanta Compromise” speech is a highly influential agreement struck since he used so much imagery while encouraging African Americans and whites to not be resentful people mainly towards each other. He wanted to inspire African Americans to take their education seriously and also improve economical gains to support political equalities for all. Washington used a simple story to illustrate a moral to point out his call for economic comity. However, disfranchise and segregation movements started in 1890. The south treated African Americans with denigration and humiliation.
On the contrary, Du Bois only provided one view to how African Americans were being treated; Washington had a friendlier approach. This may be due to his fear of being lynched or placing African Americans in a harsher situation than they already were. Washington seemed more methodical—he was thinking about African Americans having the full rights of the 14th and 15th amendments. At the same, he was also concerned about the consequences of his speech, and if it angered the whites more than it relieved the situation they were all facing. Washington and Du Bois had every intention to improve the social and political status of African Americans, but they sought different plans to achieve such goals due to their different upbringings, values, and opinions.
I guess when you ask the question, was the Reconstruction a success or a failure? It all depends how you look at it. Laws that were set up weren’t always followed correctly, but laws were still being set up to protect African Americans rights. It must have been a success because now today, they are known as citizens and have the right to vote. But then again, the rise of the Klu Klux Klan and other white supremacy groups, in combination with the Black Codes, began to intimidate freed slaves and push back their civil liberties.
During the Black Civil Rights movement it was questionable what the best method was to end segregation and oppression. Throughout the many successes and failures of the time it is apparent a few of the biggest leaders were Martin Luther King jr. and Malcolm X. King took to a more peaceful protest stance to try and help integrate blacks and whites. On the other hand, Malcolm X believed white racism would never end, thus favoring separatism. Their successes and failures ultimately integrated whites and blacks, and possibly if they would have been able to work together King’s approach would have been more aggressive and to the point, while Malcolm X could have used his hostility to help with integration rather than separation.
Douglass worked towards improved race conditions and women's issues. During the Civil War, he argued that slaves should have the right to fight for their freedom. The emancipation and suffrage of freedpeople were his concerns to solve during the Reconstruction Era. Douglass was still actively fighting for the equality of African Americans and women despite the emergence of white supremacist organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan. (His courage contributed to find solutions ("moral transformation"5)for "slavish personality"6, which abolitionists faced a dilemma between slave and free political communities. )
leadership. The Civil Rights Acts and Voting Rights Act formed a legal basis to end the segregation and discrimination that has been happening in the United States. Malcolm X influenced disparate wings of the black movement. King influenced the non-violence act to the younger African-American generation to show them that violence just causes more of a problem. The radical faction of the "Black Power" movement accepted his positions on African identification, neocolonialism, black control of the political economy of black communities, and Afro-American self-defense.
This movement opposed the notion of making government larger and handing over rights to blacks that were supposedly hard earned by other citizens (403). Richardson argues that while the government was obliged to provide blacks political equality, “social” equality needed to be earned; social equality was considered the standing an individual achieved through merit and hard work. Although blacks accepted this, those that had prospered to the “better classes” still found that discrimination was still wanton. To battle these discriminations, blacks called for protective legislation (418). This legislation came in the way of the Civil Rights Act of 1875.
He believed we shouldn 't fight about the Jim Crow laws keep our focus on more important things education. In later years, W.E.B DuBois who once agreed with some of the strides Washington is making, will eventually turn against him for working with white men for the betterment of black people. He stood fast to blacks having equal rights by working and getting a good education. His strong arm to get widespread education to all would be called the Tuskegee Machine. In 1909 DuBois would become the co-founder of the NAACP (National Association of the Advancement of Colored People).
Whites used literacy tests such as those similar to Alabama 's in order to keep as many blacks from registering to vote. Many of the blacks during this time weren’t well educated having the literacy tests with words that they could not understand gave the whites the upper hand. A large part that played into making literacy tests were because of fear. The Whites feared that if blacks were able to exercise their constitutional right to vote they would have the ability to change the government that the whites built. The blacks would be able to voice their own opinion and change laws and regulations such as those implemented for segregation.
In order to preserve black solidarity, there should be a precise identification of group members, loyalty and common goals and values. Throughout the Civil Rights Movement, there were common goals and values between African American organizations like integration, advancement opportunities rights to full citizenship. Examples of black solidarity during the Civil Rights Movement were the March on Washington in 1963, and the Montgomery Bus Boycott, which helped to produce civil liberties. In the film “Making a way out of no way” African American leader, Booker T. Washington, argued that slaves should unite with each other and whites to obtain an education to enhance the conditions of the South. In President Obama’s speech “ A More Perfect Union,” he states, “we can move beyond some of our old racial wounds, and that in fact we have no choice if we are to continue on the path of a more perfect union,” to emphasize the importance of unity in the American society.