This chapter explains how and why different research methods are selected by the author. The author has made logical justification of different research methodology techniques in accordance with the aim and objectives of the research. Research methodology helps the researcher to get a systematic solution of the research problems. Kumar (2008) mentioned research methodology as the science of conducting research. Cottrell and McKenzie (2011) argued good research should be followed by the well-established previous theories.
(Malhotra and Birks, 2007, 159.) Checking the reliability and validity of the research instrument is more important before starting any kind of analysis , especially in respect of conducting multivariate analysis with Structural equation modeling(Dillon,W.R and M.Goldstein 1984:Hair et al,2010),validity testing means testing the instrument whether it has the ability to measure what it intends to measure. The two forms of validity testing are 1) content validity 2) Construct validity. Content
In case the research is on a hypothesis and test of this hypothesis using data is known as the deductive approach. In deductive approach researcher develop a theoretical or conceptual framework and then test this theory using literature review and collecting the data. The other type of research is inductive research in which the researcher develops the theory after analyzing the data. In inductive research there is a clearly defined research question and objective and researcher explore the literature. Inductive method of research will be applied for the case study of WCC as the research question has already been defined.
Task 4 In-club to produce an empirical and highly practical research , the research worker must use a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches; the researcher must consider which of the diverse methods used in research are most appropriate for the probe and answering of the head . The option of methods and the way in which they are implemented will largely be determined by the research question , but will also be influenced by practical consideration, such as material handiness . Research may involve either empirical data (“fact” identified within a pre specified conceptual view) or conceptual data. Empirical inquiry is often adding up answer to describe situation or to test theory . Conceptual research is often development and arranging conceptual understandings
Data Validity To confirm the validity of the data, a check is needed to test the data and the data analysis. One of the techniques used in this research in checking the validity of the data is triangulation. Triangulation is an analytic technique, used during fieldwork as well as later during formal analysis, to corroborate a finding with evidence from two or more different sources (Yin, 2011, p.313). Besides, triangulation aims to gather multiple perspectives on the situation being studied (Cresswell, 2010, 629). There are two mains types of triangulation; by source and by methods (Ary, 2010, p.499).
In qualitative research, the researcher interprets the data by developing a description, analyzing data and finally drawing conclusions about its meaning theoretically. The characteristics of qualitative research (Rossman and Rallis, 1998) cited in Creswell are: 1) Qualitative research usually done in the field. Meaning that the researcher should go to the field of the research object in order to collect the primary data. In this case, researcher will be able to know and understand deeply about the research object and gain better experience and got more detail data. 2) Qualitative research uses data collective which involve the participant actively and sensitively in the study.
Research Design comprises of different elements namely research approach, research purpose, and research strategy. 4.2.1 Research Approach The research approach for this study will be quantitative and deductive research as the study is based on long existing concepts and hence to be able to draw conclusion from findings on the observed data collected and relating them back to the concepts. Quantitative research is about asking others for their opinions in a ordered way so that firm facts and data can be created .As such to get consistent statistical results, it’s important to examine people in a fairly large number and to make sure they representative a sample of a target market. In this study we will make use of questionnaire as a mean of Quantitative research . Deductive approach can be explained by the means of hypotheses, which can be obtained from the theory.
(2007) mentioned that it is important to have a clear research strategy (design), a general plan of how the researcher will go about answering the research questions. Research strategy should contain clear objectives derived from the research questions; also, it should identify the sources from which the researcher intends to collect data. Sekaran (2003) pointed out that research design involves a series of rational decisions. These are: identifying the purpose of the study, whether it is exploratory, descriptive or hypothesis testing; identifying the type of investigation; deciding the extent of the researcher’s intervention; identifying the study setting; deciding measurement and measures; deciding data analysis; deciding data collection methods; deciding time horizon; deciding sampling design; identifying the unit of analysis. Accordingly, the choice of research design depends on the research questions, objectives and research philosophy.
Developing and planning formative research. Step 1: Define the research problems and purpose: Research problems and purposes are which motivates the most critical cases, behaviors in communities and households, perception about the practices and the possible ways to facilitate new or improve current practices. (Powell, E.T & Renner, M., 2003). Step 2: Create a draft of conceptual framework: Conceptual framework is to keep the formative research focused on the research objectives. A conceptual framework is a set of related ideas behind the research design.
Integrative Review: It is considered a type of research that, surveys; investigates; and combines agent writing on a subject in a coordinated way with the end goal that new systems and points of view on the theme are created. The assortment of writing incorporates all investigations that address related or indistinguishable speculations. A well-done integrative audit meets an indistinguishable guideline from essential research as to clearness, thoroughness, and replication. 4. Methodological Review: A review does not generally centre on what somebody stated, but rather how they said it.