The kidney is one of the vital organs for excretion in the human body. Kidneys are paired; reddish, bean-shaped organ located at the back of the abdomen, one on each side of the spine, at the level of the lowest ribs, just above the waist between the peritoneum walls of the abdomen. The right kidney is slightly lower than the left kidney because the liver occupies considerable space on the left side superior to the kidney (Figure: 1.1). Kidneys are situated retroperitoneal in the abdominal cavity. An adult kidney is about 10 – 12 cm long, 5 -7 cm wide and 3 cm thick with a mass of 135 – 150gm.
15. Circle of Willis a. The circle of Willis is a section of the circulatory system that includes the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries, as they converge to form a circulation network (Starkey, et al., 2011). b. This circle is used, so that if a cranial artery is obstructed, the design of the circle permits partial blood supply to the area (Starkey, et al., 2011).
Pinna The external ear comprises of pinna and external auditory canal. The elastic fibrocartilage forms the body of the pinna and is covered by skin which is attached loosely on its medial surface. This cartilage is avascular and derives its nutrition from the perichondrium. A unique pattern on the lateral surface of the pinna makes it characteristic for each individual and comprises of helix, antihelix, triangular fossa, scaphoid fossa, concha, tragus, antitragus, intertragic notch and lobule. The narrow gap between the anterior crux of helix and tragus is deficient of cartilage and comprises of dense fibrous tissue, known as incisura terminalis.
EC 3 are hydrolases, which forms two products from the substrate via hydrolysis. (Bach, et al. 1961) This is seen in the equation: L- Arginine + H2OL-Ornithine + Urea (Nelson and Cox 2008). The urea cycle is the procedure where ammonia is transformed into to urea. Throughout the urea cycle, the amino acid, arginine, is changes into ornithine- this is another amino acid when hydrated, that is when water was added.
TASK 3.1 Write a report comparing and contrasting the structure and function of the three types of blood vessels. The Structure and Functions of Blood Vessels ARTERIES The walls of arteries contain smooth muscle fibre that contract and relax under the instructions of the sympathetic nervous system. The functions of the arteries are: transport blood away from the heart and transport oxygenated blood only. Arteries have four different parts, which are; lumen, endothelium, smooth muscle and connective tissue. LUMEN=the lumen of arteries is relatively narrow to maintain high blood pressure.
Blood passes downward posterior to the heart which then supplies the head, neck, upper limbs, abdominal cavities, and smaller arteries to other organs before reaching the lower limbs. After all organs have received blood the deoxygenated blood returns to the right side of the heart. The deoxygenated blood gets back to the heart by two veins. The superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava where the process begins again. The sole purpose of blood is to transport substances from place to place in the body.
The principal arteries of supply to the head and neck are the “two common carotids; they ascend in the neck and each divides into two branches. One is the external carotid, supplying the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck and two the internal carotid, supplying to a great extent the parts within the cranial and orbital cavities” (Common). Coronary Arteries are the network of arteries that encircles the heart to provide its blood supply. The two primary coronary arteries, the right coronary artery and the left coronary artery, branch from the aorta as it arises from the left ventricle. The left coronary artery is significantly larger and supplies the left heart.
The nerves are surrounded by connective tissue provide blood and nutrients. Epineurium is the outer fibrous layer of the nerve. Neurilemma covers the nerve cell. Each nerve cell is packed into fascicles which surrounds by the epineurium and inner most layer is covered by a layer of fibrous connective called endoneurium. The peripheral nervous system is associated with cranial and spinal nerves.
In the classic nomenclature(28) the vermis and hemisphere of the cerebellum is divided into three lobes namely anterior, posterior and flocculonodular lobe (Fig 2 and 3), by two deep fissures known as the primary fissure between the anterior and posterior lobes and the posterolateral fissure between the tonsil and flocculonodular lobe(24,25). The anterior lobe is bound anteriorly by superior medullary velum and posteriorly by the primary fissure. The vermis and hemispheres in the anterior lobe are further divided into lobules by two fissures namely precentral fissure and the preculminate fissure. The vermis is divided into three lobules namely lingula, central lobule and culmen. Lingula and the central lobule separated by the precentral fissure, central lobule and the culmen separated by the preculminate sulcus.
Heart is a four-chambered muscular pumping organ that divides into atriums and ventricles that are separated by valves to prevent backflow of blood among the compartments (Smeltzer, Bare, Hinkle, & Cheever, 2010). However, heart undergoes two types of circulatory loops in the transportation of blood which are systemic and pulmonary circulation (Taylor, n.d.). Systemic circulation pumps oxygenated blood from heart into all tissues in the body and return the deoxygenated blood back into the heart via vena cava (Taylor, n.d.). On the other hand, pulmonary circulation responsible in the transportation of deoxygenated blood into the lungs for gaseous exchange that results in the return of oxygenated blood into the heart via pulmonary vein (Taylor, n.d.). Another major component of CVS is blood
The liver has a portal vein as well as a hepatic vein. It also has unique exchange blood vessels similar to capillaries, called “sinusoids.” How do these unique structures determine the function of the organ? • The livers main function is to filter and process the blood it receives. The portal vein and hepatic vein then deliver the nutrient rich blood to the capillaries (sinusoids). The blood seeps in the sinusoids on its way to the hepatic veins, and then to the vena cava.
Chymotrypsin is produced in the small intestine and is released when there is a sizable amount of amino acids, fatty acids in the small intestine, and it stimulates secretion of the pancreatic enzymes and releases bile by gallbladder while allows for the fats to have an increased surface area. This makes it much easier for the the proteins to be absorbed into the bloodstream. The gastric inhibitory peptide secreted when fatty acids and sugars are present in the small intestine and the presences of this peptide inhibitor is that it stops stomach movements and release of stomach acid. The last of these three is gastrin which is produced in the stomach opposed to the intestines, and is released when there is an influx of peptides and amino acids. The hormone stimulates acid secretion by the cells in the stomach which allows it to kill bacteria and break down