Case Study: Understanding Aircraft Radar Systems

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Unit no. : 86

Unit name : Aircraft communication and navigation

Lo1 : Understanding Aircraft radar systems

Contents :
4.1 - Principles and operation of aircraft radar system.

4.2 - Factors affecting aircraft radar system ( Transmitter power and antenna size,receiver noise and atmospheric conditions )

4.3- problems on height, bearing and range.

D1 - Doppler effect and doppler radar and working principle.
Find the radar which uses doppler shit phenomena .
Bistatic radar
Continuous-wave radar
Doppler radar
Fm-cw radar
Monopulse radar
Passive radar
Planar array radar
Pulse-doppler
Synthetic aperture radar
Over-the-horizon radar

4.1 Principles and operation of aircraft radar system

RADAR
( Radio Detecting
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Primary Surveillance radar
Secondary Surveillance Radar
Primary surveillance radar uses the common principle of newtons third law by sending a narrow beam of energy which upon reflection from the aircraft under surveillance is collected back by receiver radar. The time taken for the transmission of radar pulse and the received echo will helps in finding the distance of the object.
Secondary Surveillance Radar It worked on the coded reply from the airborne radio beacon Transponder located in aircraft which is the response to the interrogation sent from the ground station.

RADAR principle
The electronic principle on which the radar works is very similar to the principle of sound wave reflection. As the sound wave reflection principle says if u shout in the direction of sound reflecting object the echo reflected sound is heared. If you get to know the sound speed in air and time it takes to return back you can roughly calculate the distance and the direction of the
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The radar signal is generated by a powerful transmitter and received by a highly sensitive receiver.

The signal get scattered in all direction upon reflection. The backscatter is the word used for the signal which is reflected back in the opposite direction of incident. Radar signals are displayed on the plan position indicator ( PPI ) or other advanced radar system where the radar will be located at origin . It indicates the pointing direction of antenna and the bearing of plane. fig - block diagram of radar http://www.radartutorial.eu/01.basics/pic/signalweg.en.gif Transmitter
It produces the high powered short duration radio frequency signal that are spaced by an antenna.

Duplexer
It alternately switches the antenna between the transmitter and receiver as only one antenna can be used at a time. This is done as transmitter will transmit high powered signals and receiver will operate upon reflected low powered signal . So to avoid the high-power pulses of the transmitter to enter into receiver and destroy it.

Receiver
It amplifies and demodulate the rf signal received . Some times it also provides video signals on the

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