1.1) Explain the principles of operation of the aircraft radar systems with appropriate block Diagrams and pictorial representation. (Assessment Criteria 4.1) Radio detection and ranging is an electromagnetic sensor used for detecting, tracking, locating and recognizing objects of various types at considerable distance. Radar operates by transmitting electromagnetic energy to objects commonly referred to as targets and observing the echoes of target which returns back. The target may be aircraft, spacecraft and astronomical bodies, or even like birds and rains. And finds the presence, location, and velocity of such objects and radar can find their size and shape as well.
The operator tunes the ADF receiver to the correct frequency and verifies the identity of the beacon by listening to the Morse code signal transmitted by the NDB. A centre line on the antenna unit moving atop a compass rose indicated in degrees the bearing of the station More modern aviation ADFs contain a small array of fixed aerials and use electronic sensors to deduce the direction using the strength and phase of the signals from each aerial. It is sometimes wrongly confused with quadrantal error, which is the result of radio waves being bounced and reradiated by the airframe. Quadrantal error does not affect signals from straight ahead or behind, nor on the wingtips. Omni-directional radio range VHF Omni Directional Radio Range (VOR) is a type of short-range radio navigation system for aircraft, enabling aircraft with a receiving unit to determine their position and stay on course by receiving radio signals transmitted by a network of fixed ground radio
This paper exhibits a comparative the time response specification performance between PID and fuzzy logic controller of pitch control of an aircraft system. The dynamic modeling of pitch control system is considered on the PID and fuzzy logic controller, they are used to control the pitch angle, and we start with a mathematical model to describe the dynamics of an aircraft. The performances of pitch control systems are investigated and analyzed based by using step’s response in order to identify which control strategy delivers better performance with respect to the desired pitch angle. Finial we produced simulation models for pitch control system using matlab Simulink compared the performance of fuzzy and PID controller. to They are three
Using a potentiometer this cone can be adjusted to widen or extend the sensing range Beam angles are responsible for spacing between the sensors. The sensors must be spaced so they do not interfere with each other. This interference is sometimes called “crosstalk.” Fig 8. Spacing of Ultrasonic Sensors When more than one ultrasonic sensor is in use, in such applications the following guidelines should only be used as a reference. Fig.9 Spacing
Air here basically is acting as an insulator; now at rest, there is very little capacitance between the plates. Like inductive sensors, these plates are also here linked to an oscillator, a Schmitt trigger, and an output amplifier. When a target reaches the sensing zone there is a capacitance increase in the two plates, which leads to oscillator amplitude change, which then in turn changes the Schmitt trigger, and will produce an output signal. There will be a difference between the inductive and capacitive sensors: inductive sensors oscillate until the target is present and capacitive sensors oscillate when the target is present. Proximity sensors which are activated by help of a permanent magnet are known as Magnetic proximity sensors.
PROPOSED METHODOLOGY The building blocks are 1) Echo generator 2) Difference amplifier 3) Phase shifter 4) Sound processor UPC 1892 A) Echo Generator The input signal of echo generator is acquired from the microphone. The echo generator block generates echo by means of Phase shifters in the given input signal along with delay B) Phase Shifter A phase shifter is microwave network which provides a controllable phase shift of input signal. It provides invariable phase shift with frequency. Phase shifters of angle 90,180,270 and 360 . C) DIFFERENCE AMPLIFIER The difference amplifier with LM3 amplifies the difference between two voltages making this type of operational amplifier circuit , a subtractor.
The computer determines the desired trajectory for the missile to intercept the target. This trajectory is sent as commands to the missile. The missile in turn, uses them to provide the necessary actuation. Usually, a RADAR or LASER system is used to keep track of the missile. Alternatively, imaging systems can also be used to keep track of them.
The accelerometer reads the tilt of each axis and outputs each as a digital value. Receiver Station: The base station serves one important purpose to receive packets sent from the Hand Unit, and convert it into HID format, and send mouse instructions to the user side computer. The base station microcontroller receives input to RXD from the RF module's data output. Communication is processed via UART in the same fashion as in the Hand unit. RF MODULE will act as physical layer which consist of raw bits.
TWO-DIMENSIONAL AEROFOIL’S MODELING Designer Modeler is the pre-processor of ANSYS-FLUENT. A simulation model can be created in Designer Modeler directly or imported from other CAD software packages, such as Solid Works and Pro/Engineer®. In this paper, aerofoil’s NACA 4412 is modeled. The NACA four digit wing sections define the profile by: • 1st digit - maximum camber in percent chord • 2nd digit - location of maximum camber along chord line (from leading edge) in tenths of chord • 3rd and 4th digits - maximum thickness in percent chord Image 5.1 - Depicts the profile of NACA 4412
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.0 INTRODUCTION The purpose of the current study was to examine communication in aviation discourse, to identify the type of miscommunication that occurred in pilot-controller communication and repair strategies taken by pilots and controllers to rectify the problem. In addition, this research attempt to investigate intercultural communication factors in aviation discourse focusing at English as lingua franca setting. Chapter 3 describes the methods and procedures employed to conduct the research, this chapter includes: research design of the study, research sample and site, access and permissions, research procedure and data analysis. 3.1 Research Design This research used case study approach by