They are transformation, a genetic process which free DNA is incorporated into a recipient cell, transduction, a process which bacterial virus transfers DNA to another cell, and conjugation, a form of horizontal gene transfer which requires cell-to-cell contact. The bacteria we used in this experiment were Acinetobacter. Acinetobacter show a coccobacillary morphology and are strictly aerobic, gram-negative bacteria. They are widely distributed in nature especially in soil and can survive on both moist and dry surfaces. One of the species, A. baumannii is a frequent cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia, and can cause various other infections.
The movement of the endocytosed protein which is destined for the apical surface to fuse with and also the movement of extracellular materials from one side of the epithelial cells to another can be termed as transcytosis. With respect to concept, transcytosis can be grouped into three processes namely; endocytosis, exocytosis and transcellular transport (Pravda,2011). Though transcytosis is tightly controlled by the cell it also has the potential for transepithelial movement of bacteria and other pathogens, hence it sometimes becomes an etiologic factor in the body(Pravda,2011). Trancytosis occurs in hepatocytes and this phenomenon is a typical example of transcellular transport . Here the apical membrane form bile and the basolateral membrane face blood.
Pulse field electrophoresis is used for the separation of larger fragments of DNA. These fragments result from digesting a bacterial genome with a rare-cutting restriction enzyme. The pattern of DNA produced on the gel is used to differentiate different strains of bacteria. For the identification of individuals like humans or other organisms, Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RELP) analysis has turn out to be very practical. After isolation of DNA from the source it is digested enzymatically with the help of restriction endonucleases.
A large number of heterocyclic compounds are essential to life. Various compounds such as alkaloids, antibiotics, essential amino acids, the vitamins, haemoglobin, the hormones and a large number of synthetic drugs and dyes contain heterocyclic ring systems. Knowledge of heterocyclic chemistry is useful in biosynthesis and in drug metabolism as well. Nucleic acids are important in biological
Thus meaning that they are oxidase negative. Enterobacteriaceae are catalase-positive, while both traits with the family have their exceptions, they are often used for the microorganisms identification for example using API strips. While the Enterobacteriaceae ferment a verity of carbohydrates, it is their production of acid and gas by-products from the fermentation of D-Glucose that is one of the most important diagnostic features for their detection and enumeration. Some Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Citrobacter spp.
Among these, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), which belongs to the group of polyoxoesters has received intensive attention because it possesses biodegradable thermoplastic properties [Albuquerque et al, 2007]. PHA is synthesized by bacteria under unbalanced growth conditions. Some bacteria have been reported capable to produce PHA as much as 90% (w/w) of dry cells during depletion of essential nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus or magnesium [Madison et al, 1998]. Not only PHA serves as storage compounds of carbon and energy sources, but also as a sink for reducing equivalents for some microorganisms [Schubert et al, 1998]. PHA acts as an ideal storage compound due to its insolubility inside bacterial cytoplasm, which exerts negligible increase in osmotic
An important addition in some research of semiochemicals and also their application on an insect for control pest also can be done in chemical laboratories. But, in this case, we need to have collaboration between biologists. This is because biological test was needed to detect and evaluate the chemical interaction between the organisms. Synthetic organic chemistry acts as important thing in this case due to get a successful identification of an active compound. To get the compound for the biological test in order to confirm the chromatographic, we need to synthesis it.
By disruption some protein adherent cells, using trypsin treatment helps cells break down. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are an endotoxin and also the major component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. In the research laboratory, LPS have been used to secretion of growth promoting factors and induce synthesis. Moreover, because of its connection to septicemia, LPS has been to identify possible inhibitors
Supervised by We certify that this thesis was prepared under our supervision at the College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University as a partial requirement for degree of Philosophy of Doctorate in medical microbiology. In view of the available recommendation, forward this thesis for debate by the examining committee. Crohn’s disease results from a complex interaction between susceptibility genes, immune system and microbes that can trigger disease pathology. This study aims to determine the significance of ATG16L1 T300A genetic variant on host immunological status, clinical phenotype and presentation as well as the risk of microbial (Norovirus and/or ) acquisition
In the 1960s Mackanes noticed the efficacy of MΦ against bacteria such as Listeria and Staph Aureus, instigating further studies that would eventually highlight the activation of MΦ. Florence Loi (14)and her team investigated the use of various combinations of macrophage (MΦ) phenotypes, i.e., Naïve (Mϕ), proinflammatory, (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages (and their subcategories) co-cultured with the osteogenic properties of pre-osteoblasts. The design of the study was to demonstrate the malleability and heterogeneity that MΦ display, and how they contribute to osteogenesis. Several studies have begun to indicate there is more of a sliding scale for the functionality of these cells, more so than belonging to a fixed active state. Polarisation and plasticity, controlling the physical state of MΦ lends itself to manipulation by way of cytokines or growth factors, allow us to steer the cells to express the most beneificial factor for the current conditions.