Cassava is the sixth real staple crop after rice wheat, maize potato and sweet potato (Olukunle and Jimoh (2012). It is the source of dietary food energy for majority of the people living in the lowland topics and sub-humid topic of West and Central Africa (Tsegia et al; 2002, Echebiri and Edaba (2008)). Africa produce half of the world’s supply, Nigeria is the world’s largest producer of cassava, delivering around 45 million tonnes in 2009 almost 35% of West Africa and 11% of total world production by (Adekanye, S.I, & Ajala 2013; IITA, 2009) . Nigeria is the third world’s largest producer of cassava tuber after Zaire and Brazil Uba (2013). Cassava is referred to as food security due to its agronomic characteristics adaptation to West
Sugarcane is propagated commercially by vegetative method, which involves the planting of the stem cuttings of premature cane about 8 to 12 months old grown with special care are recommended for seed cane (Mengistu, 2013). The seed cane that used as planting material may be either whole stalks or stalks` cut up in shorter segments called setts (Garside et al., 2001). The growth of sugarcane has different phases: germination, tillering, stalk growth, and maturation. The germination is a critical event in the plant life to assure a good harvest. It is initially dependent on the set nutrients and water till developing its own root system for three weeks under proper conditions, though, the initial growth of sugarcane is influenced by several internal
The genus Ananas has distinctive characteristics which merging the whole inflorescence into a huge compound fruit. The main pineapple producers in the world that supplying nearly 50 % of the total output are Thailand, Philippines, Brazil and China. There are some other important producers such as India, Kenya, Nigeria, Indonesia and Mexico (Hossain, Akhtar and Anwar, 2015). Adult pineapple plants have height in 1.2 m with a diameter of 1.5 m which consists of several parts. The main morphological structures of pineapple are the leaves, stem, peduncle, multiple fruit, shoots, roots and the crown.
In 2008 almost 557.5 thousand tons production of dates was recorded (Al-Hooti et al., 2002). It was reported that 5000 date palm cultivars are found worldwide; out of this 325 cultivars are in Pakistan (Jamil et al., 2010). Date production is about 7.5 million tonnes of fruit worldwide and Pakistan contributes 72 thousand tonnes (FAO, 2011). Composition
Flaxseed, of Mesopotamia origin, has been cultivated since 5000 BC, being used until the 1990s principally for the fabrication of cloths and papers. Today it is cultivated in over 2.6 million ha and the important linseed growing countries are India, China, United States, Ethiopia. Canada with 614,000 metric tons of flaxseed produced in the year 2013-2014, is the world’s largest producer of flax and accounts for nearly 80% of the global trade in flaxseed. The whole flaxseed is flat and oval with pointed tips and contains a seed coat or true hull (also called testa), a thin endosperm, two embryos and an embryo axis. Every part of the linseed plant is utilized commercially, either directly or after processing.
India is largest producer, processor, exporter and second largest consumer of cashew in the world with annual production of 6, 20,000 MT. India processed about 1.18 million MT of raw cashew seeds through 3650 cashew processing industries scattered in many states of country and around
INTRODUCTION About ninety three percent (93%) of global production of yam is from the ‘Yam Belt’ of West Africa, which expanses from Ivory Coast to Nigeria. In this region, Yam does not only serve as source of food and income to farmers, it also has a socio-cultural value (Fu et al, 2011; Ekunwe et al 2008; Izekor & Olumese 2010). Ngnenbe (2016) cited the Ghana Root Crop Traders and Exporters Union (GROCTEU) as saying that yam is also used in medicine, industry and manufacturing. Globally, Ghana is the second highest producer of yams, producing about 6.3 million tons in 2011, with a monetary value of about $1.6 Billion (Ghana Yam Sector Development Strategy Paper). According to the strategy paper, regions in which yams are cultivated include, Northern, Brong Ahafo, Ashanti, Eastern, Volta, Western and Upper West regions; with Brong Ahafo and Northern regions alone accounting for about 62% of total national production.
Cassava is the sixth real staple crop after rice wheat, maize potato and sweet potato (Olukunle and Jimoh (2012). It is the source of dietary food energy for majority of the people living in the lowland topics and sub-humid topic of West and Central Africa (Tsegia et al; 2002, Echebiri and Edaba (2008)). Africa produce half of the world’s supply, Nigeria is the world’s largest producer of cassava, delivering around 45 million tonnes in 2009 almost 35% of West Africa and 11% of total world production by (IITA, 2009, Adekanye et al., 2013) . Nigeria is the third world’s largest producer of cassava tuber after Zaire and Brazil Uba (2013). Cassava is referred to as food security due to its agronomic characteristics adaptation to West Africa.
The production of crude oil and natural gas accounts for about 90% of GDP. Some 167,000 barrels (26,600 m3) of oil are produced each day, making Brunei the fourth largest oil producer in Southeast Asia. It also produces about 25.3 million cubic meters of natural gas per day, making Brunei the ninth largest exporter of natural gas in the world. Substantial income from foreign investment complements domestic production revenues. Most of these investments are made by the Brunei Investment Agency, a branch of the Ministry of Finance.