A vegetable oil is a tryacylglyceride and can be converted to fatty acid methyl ester via the action of NaOH in a transesterification reaction involving methanol. In this experiment this was done using sunflower oil. A 2L PET bottle was used as a bioreactor. The final biodiesel product was separated, purified using water, dried in a 50 ͦC waterbath and its volume noted. A low yield (18.4%) of biodiesel was obtained.
(Thiago et al., 2013). Moradiand his group studied the effects of temperature and volume fraction of biodiesel and diesel on the density and kinematic viscosity of blends They used five biodiesels: sunflower, canola, and soybean waste cooking oil edible tallow. Density and kinematic viscosity of mixtures were measured at several temperatures. Results showed that by reducing temperature and increasing the volume fraction of biodiesel, density and kinematic viscosity are increased (Moradi et al.,
Even with just a small market share rapeseed oil, crambe oil, palm oil, castor oil, lard and marine oils found specific applications in certain lubrication areas. But the development of lubricants from vegetable oils slowed because of e conomic and performance factors. Only a few oils, such as rapeseed and high-oleic oil, were used as base oils for lubricant until the early 1990s (Basu, Robley, Norris 1994). The lack of extensive use of plant based oil although it has the added advantage of being non-toxic, is largely due to the poor performance characteristics of the oil. Research has found that most of this plant based oils are unstable at higher temperatures.
The main disadvantages of castor oil is its inherent instability but this can overcome with small amount of antioxidant. Mineral oil is not recommended without a co-solvent, such as isocetyl alcohol because unstable system results with mineral oil tend to sweat out. (Poucher’s perfumes, cosmetic and soaps, 1999) 2.3.2 Selection of Waxes Waxes is the main ingredient to give structure and lustre to the lipsticks. All the waxes use must be flexible but brittleness and have the ability to retain oils in their crystal structure. A combination of hard and soft waxes is used to give the balance of application and rigidity.
and esters. In the case of hydrolytic reaction, the steam produced during the processing of food containing water causes the hydrolysis of triglycerides, resulting in the formation of free fatty acid, glycerol, monoglycerides, and diglycerides. High free fatty acid level, i.e. quantum of free fatty acids greater than 1 mg/g KOH, results in generation of high amounts of undesirable soap simultaneously with transestriﬁcation reaction. In the alkali-catalyzed process, the presence of free fatty acid (greater than 1 mg/g KOH) and water in the oil can cause high amounts of undesirable soap formation, also consuming some quantity of alkaline catalyst and reduces the eﬀectiveness, all of which result in a lower conversion.
Eshanomi(2009) indicated that up until the 1960s, Nigeria was the world’s largest producer of palm oil accounting for 43% of global palm oil production, but now reported that Nigeria is the third largest producer of palm oil after Indonesia and Malaysia with an estimated production of 1,300,000 tons representing 3.34% of the world production( FAO ,2010). According to Eshanomi (2009) Over-reliance on traditional production methods, excessive tapping of palm trees for palm wine and the civil war between 1967-1970, are factors that contributed to Nigeria’s inability to meet up with the global rise in demand for palm oil. The palm oil is grown in Nigeria from latitudes 40 - 110N; of the Equator from the fresh water swamp forest of the coast to the Northern zone of the Guinea Savannah. Cultivation of palm oil started in 1928 in Nigeria but palm oil production in the country dates back to several centuries (Omoti, 1999). Production and supply of palm oil and palm kernel is mainly from 24 States in Nigeria namely; Abia, Akwa Ibom, Cross River, Rivers, Bayelsa, Imo, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu, Delta, Edo, Ondo, Ogun, Osun, Oyo, Ekiti, Benue, Kwara, Kogi,
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1Overview Vegetable oils have been previously used as lubricants since times immemorial but their fame as lubricants declined with advent of petroleum base lubricants by Goyan et al (1998).The use of vegetable oils and their esters however continued as lubricants in applications like rolling, cutting, drawing and quenching operations either alone or in combination with mineral oils because of their superior lubricity and higher specific heat by K Nishizawa (1976), HA Smith and R M Mcgill (1957), R K Brandth R F Morton (1978). The esters of dibasic, such as sebacic, palargaonic and azelaic with mono, di and polyhydric, such as 2-ethylhexanol,(C9-C14) oxo alcohols, polyglycols, pentaerythritol and neopentyl alcohol
It may cause initial fuel filter choking but continued use of biodiesel will not cause an increased frequency of filter changes. Biodiesel extends the life of engine. Biodiesel has excellent lubricating properties that reduce the wear and tear on vital engine parts. Use of biodiesel or biodiesel blends instead of petrodiesel in engines will considerably reduce unburnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter from tail pipe emissions. It will also virtually eliminate sulfur oxides and sulfates which are major contributors to acid rain.
Moisture and effect of free fatty acid Moisture and free fatty acid is an important parameter in defining the viability of the transesterification process of vegetable oils. To perform the catalytic reaction to completion; is free fatty acid (FFA) less than 3% is needed. The higher acidity of the oil is smaller than the conversion efficiency. Either excess, as well as an inadequate amount of catalyst, may cause the formation of soap. The starting materials are used for the base-catalyzed alcoholysis should respond certain requirements.
It has the ability to withstand environmental stress, reproduce easily and grow at a faster rate with high market value as well (El-Sayeed, 2006). Their ability to feed on varieties of food ranging from zooplankton to fish food (Olaosebikan & Raji, 1998), lead to efficient utilization of vegetable oil (Sala & Balesteros, 1997). O. niloticus has been cultured successfully on series of alternative lipids and blends with FO at various levels, including soybean oil, crude palm oil, crude palm kernel, sunflower oil, palm fatty acid distillates, linseed and many others (Gabber, 1996; Ng et al., 2001; Kaushik, 2004; Ng, 2004; Ng et al., 2004). The choice of lipid for feed formulation have also been influenced by other factors such as diseases and resistance (health) of the fish and for consumer health (Ballestrazzi et al., 2006; Ng et al., 2009). However, numerous novels on lipid have become widely available both in mammals and some fish species on disease and resistance (Azad et al., 2001; Al-harbi & Uddin, 2004; Cai et al., 2004) on effects of vegetable oils on plasma metabolites and hematocrits; few have been evaluated in the context of coconut oil replacement of FO in O. niloticus diet (Nordrum et al., 2003; Mohamed et al., 2002; Nagao & Yanagita, 2010; Williams et al., 2006; Allan et al., 2001) and has shown the association between growth performance, body composition and coconut oil levels.