The results from the lab supported the initial hypothesis that catalase will have the highest reaction rate when exposed to a temperature around 37℃ as a reaction rate of 5 was obtained when catalase was at a temperature of 30℃. This lab explains the trend between temperature and reaction rate, as an enzyme’s activity will increase as temperature increases until it reaches the optimal temperature, in which case the activity will start to decrease. Theories like protein structures and intermolecular forces were justified by the results of this lab as well. Moreover, the activity levels of enzymes are greatly impacted by temperature and it should be further investigated through scientific applications with
Enzyme are catalytic proteins whose purpose and function is to accelerate reactions by lowering the activation energy. Enzyme only allows certain reactants to bond with it. In this lab you will be able to see the reactants as it bond with the enzyme. The laboratory method used in this experiment was basics. How fast can the Enzyme move through to produce?
Through catalyzation, the process of speeding up chemical reactions, enzymes attach to a substrate/molecule and break it down so that it can be used throughout the organism. Enzymes break down substrates in a very efficient way; through an assembly line (3). One enzyme starts off by attaching itself to a substrate at the active site, where the two undergo chemical reactions.
Substrate concentration basically means the amount used for the substrate. The substrate in our experiment was 0.1% hydrogen peroxide. The 0.1% is the concentration amount. Just like temperature and pH, substrate concentration can speed the reaction only up to a certain limit. When we mixed pH 3 enzyme tube with substrate tube, we used 0.3 mL of hydrogen peroxide, but if we were to increase the amount, then the experiment would have been faster.
This does not occur with every collision, so certain methods are used to increase the probability of a successful collision, and thus increasing the rate of reaction. One of these methods is increasing the concentrations of the reactants. Increased concentrations results in particles colliding more frequently, and more successful collisions will occur. On a graph, there would be a decreasing curve as the concentrations of reactants decreases as the reaction
The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
The detergent attaches to the cell membrane and capture the protein and lipids of the cell membrane causing the cell to rupture. Then, the cell contents and DNA are released to the outside of the cell. The lysis buffer added causes the double stranded DNA in the cell to become single stranded DNA by disrupting the hydrogen bond between the bases. Next, acid is added to neutralize back the DNA to form double stranded DNA again. After centrifuge, the supernatant is collected as that is the plasmid while the pellet is the debris including protein and lipids.
Throughout the urea cycle, the amino acid, arginine, is changes into ornithine- this is another amino acid when hydrated, that is when water was added. During this reaction, urea is the product formed (Nelson and Cox 2008). Figure 1 shows the urea cycle, occurs specifically in the mitochondria and cytosol in the liver. (Nelson and M.Cox 2008). Urea is made in the liver by means of enzymes in the urea cycle.
Hepcidin inhibits the ferroportin from release any more iron into the blood circulation. Hepcidin is the major regulator of iron in the human body. Iron can also be used in the mitochondria in the synthesis of iron-sulfur cluster and heme. Heme in the mitochondria is found in the cytochrome used in the electron transport chain. Iron also place a role in the cofactor of an enzymatic reaction in the central nervous
Specific Heat is the amount of energy required to rise the temperature of a substance 1 Celsius degree C: Hydrophobic & Hydrophilic Molecules 1. Hydrocarbons made up of solely of hydrogen and carbon atoms 2. Hydrophilic is water loving and are compounds that will interact with water 3. Hydrophobic is water fearing and compounds that do not interact with water 2.7 Acids and Bases 1. Acid is any substance that yields hydrogen ions when put in water solutions 2.
The topic of research is, “how fast does an Alka-Seltzer tablet make gas?”. In the experiment, the scientists will be measuring the chemical reaction rates that occur, when 1 Alka-Seltzer tablet is placed in a specific temperature of water. The independent variable during the experiment will be the temperature of the water (degrees Celsius). The dependent variable during the experiment will be, the rate in which gas is produced (in seconds). The constants of the experiment, will be the amount of water used and the Alka Selter compound.
In addition, when both elements were carried out, it was noticeable that each of the test tubes feels warm. This indicated the reaction is an exothermic reaction because it produced heat. The pH level for magnesium chloride solution was neutral (not basic because of oxide layer) but basic for calcium chloride. It can be seen that calcium is more reactive than magnesium. This was because the lower the elements are down a group, the larger the size of its atomic radii.
Mannitol high salt testing is done in order to determine if the bacteria is salt tolerant and can ferment mannitol. Catalase activity test establishes whether the bacterium produces the enzyme catalase. The eosin methylene blue test or EMB, inhibits the growth of gram positive bacteria and tests whether or not gram negative bacteria can ferment lactose. Lactose fermentation testing is done to see if the bacterium is capable of fermenting sugar by testing for acid and gas production. These are the possible tests that are needed in order to identify unknown
The repressor is a regulatory protein that binds to the operator and blocks transcription of the genes of an operon. Inducers bind to the repressors and they also regulate gene expression. In the process of identifying the three strains of E.coli, ONPG (ortho-nitrophenyl b-D galactoside) was used as an indicator. ONPG is a substrate that can detect B-galactosidase, and when it does, it turns yellow. Sarkosyl was also a detergent used in the lab to lyse open cells.