Substrate concentration basically means the amount used for the substrate. The substrate in our experiment was 0.1% hydrogen peroxide. The 0.1% is the concentration amount. Just like temperature and pH, substrate concentration can speed the reaction only up to a certain limit. When we mixed pH 3 enzyme tube with substrate tube, we used 0.3 mL of hydrogen peroxide, but if we were to increase the amount, then the experiment would have been faster.
Some research has indicated that a lack of catalase can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes. It seems that some other molecules within living organisms are able to sufficiently break down hydrogen peroxide—enough to sustain life. The toxic nature of hydrogen peroxide also makes it a powerful disinfectant. And in conclusion from the information ive found ,catalase functions best at around 37 degrees Celsius as the temperature gets colder or hotter than that, the ability to work will denature and the enzyme will be
These phenomena could be illustrated by the fact that once the flow rate was slow MB in the sample solution got more contact time with UV radiation induced. However, the flow rate of 25 mL/min was chosen to be the optimum because it makes the removal process higher. These results accord with the findings of Coelho et al. (2006), who investigated the photo-Fenton treatment of a petroleum refinery
If the temperature, pH and enzyme concentration is kept constant then the rate of reaction will start to decrease as well as the hydrogen peroxide concentration. Aim: To investigate the effects of changing the concentration of the enzyme catalase that it has on the rate of breaking down the Hydrogen Peroxide solution. Dependant and Independent Variables: The Dependent Variables: Amount of time it takes when the bubbles start to rise till when they stop. The Independent Variable: Amount of Hydrogen Peroxide solution. The Controlled/ Fixed Variables are: • The amount of hydrogen peroxide inserted in each test tube.
Temperatures that are too high denature the enzyme and halt the enzyme’s activity (2). Catalase denatures starts to denature at fifty five degrees Celsius (2). Reactions in the human body produce hydrogen peroxide as a product (1). Since hydrogen peroxide is poisonous to the human body, catalase catalyzes hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen (2 H2O2 → 2 H2O + O2) (1). According to the collision theory, a reaction can only occur if particles collide with sufficient energy to overcome the activation energy and with correct geometrical orientation (3).
The substitution reaction was successful but not fully effective. 19. If the data was inconclusive, then comparing various compounds and the unknown based on physical characteristics would be the first step, titrations would also be a good method. 20. To get a better yield, redoing the experiment would require careful attention in the recrystallization steps: amount of solvent used, how hot solvent is, if the mixture cools to room temperature before placing it in an ice
In this experiment, 293 mg of aldehyde was weighted for method 1 instead of 250 mg and. Although .7906 mg of phosphonium salt was added, this probably was not enough to complete the reaction. The only significant change throughout method was 1 was that the yellowish mixture became slightly lighter. However, it was found that after vacuum filtration, there was some white and yellow
1. The reaction is an oxidation and reduction reaction. Bubbles were observed because oxygen is being release from the reaction as a gas as part of the reduction part of the reaction. Enzymes work efficiently at a body temperature of 37o C therefore if the enzyme was boiled before adding it to the peroxide there would be no bubbles due to the fact that the enzyme would be denatured. The enzyme would be inactivated.
This is due to the boiling points of the two compounds are too close for an effective simple distillation. A simple distillation only works when the boiling points of the two compounds are separated by at least 50 °C (CITATION). Meanwhile, the boiling points of the compounds of the mixtures are 82.3 °C for 2-pronanol and 117 °C for 1-butanol (National Center for Biotechnology Information). As well, while fractional distillation is more difficult due to the added fractionating column and insulation, it allows for better separation and condensation of the individual compounds. This ensures that only the compound with the lower boiling point is completely condensed before the compound with the higher boiling point begins to condense.
This is because if taken simple distillation into consideration. The column has a lower temperature at the top then the bottom thus there is a lower vapor pressure (Gilbert 126). And therefore the bottom as a higher temperature and in order to reach an equilibrium the temperature gradient is formed as shown the graph above (Gilbert 126).The column is utilized so that the vapor reaches the condenser at the bottom of the column and therefore several simple distillation trials need to be done in order to ensure that the distillation can be very effective (Gilbert 126). Boiling point and vaporization are inversely proportional, so lower boiling point means faster vaporization so in this case acetone moves down the column faster leaving the 1-propanol for the last fraction (Gilbert 126). That being said, in the fractional distillation, the rings act as the trials in the simple distillation (Gilbert 126).
The constants of the experiment, will be the amount of water used and the Alka Selter compound. The control in the experiment is water. Units used while timing the productivity of gas from an Alka-Seltzer tablet in different temperatures is, seconds. In order to find out if temperature controls the rate of chemical reaction, whether hot water is a more effective way to make the gas produce at a faster speed, it would be necessary to compare the results of different temperatures at the end of each trial. In order to do this the scientists will measure the volume of gas that is produced within a 10 second interval time after the tablet begins to react.
After seeing this data the two most effective look chemical at resisting energy was CaCl2 and LiCl. So we looked at the price of both of this chemical CaCl2 cost 6.55$ per 500g and LiCl cost 32.75$ per 500g because CaCl2 was substantially cheaper we decide to chose it to use in own hand warmer. We calculated that it would take 22g of CaCl2 to create a 20oC increase in temperature of 100ml of water. Some sources of error in this lab, would be heat escape from not be able to replace the lid of the calorement went adding chemical into it, inaccuracies in the balance, and not waiting of the proper time to recode the