The third method is stab culture. Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis are grown by stabbing vertically into nutrient gelatine in a test tube. Gelatine which contains Escherichia coli remains solid while the gelatine that contains Bacillus subtilis turns into liquid. This shows that Bacillus subtilis produces an enzyme called gelatinase which will turn the solid gelatine into liquid form while Escherichia coli do not produce gelatinase. The last method is plate culture whereby Escherichia coli are grown by streaking on agar plates in Petri dishes.
The protein sequence of mcr-1 showed its similarity to the polymyxin-producing bacterium, Paenibacillus spp., which showed the possibility of gene transfer occurring. The mcr-1 gene enables protection from polymyxin. The mechanism that the authors proposed on how the mcr-1 gene confers colistin resistance is that mcr-1 causes a modification in lipid A, present in the lipopolysaccharides of most bacteria, which leads to lessened polymyxin affinity. The lipid A has phosphoethanolamine added to it, which in turn, inhibits the bacteria from any attachment. Q3E: What is the origin of the mcr-1 gene, and what evidence do the authors use to support this
10- Transfer the ester layer to a small dry test tube and dry the ester with anhydrous CaCl2 and stir for 10 min. 11- put it in a preweighed dry round bottom flask . 14- Determine the yield, refractive index, and % yield of ester. Conditions :- 1) This reaction is catalyzed by acid, Like Fischer esterification. 2) Usage of water in step (5):So that after Estrification is completed , any excess unreacted acetic anhydride is hydrolyzed.
(1983) prepared morphogenesis-inducing extracts from various isolated bacteria of M. oxyspermum belonging to the genera Cytophaga, Flavobacterium, Caulobacter, and Pseudomonas. Matsuo et al. (2003, 2005) identified Cytophaga sp. (YM2-23) of the Cytophaga–Flavobacterium–Bacteroides complex, which excretes the morphogenesis-inducing substance thallusin and restores the foliaceous morphology of M. oxyspermum. The authors reported that the same factor also partially promotes the formation of distromatic thalli of U. pertusa and other Ulva species, highlighting the potentially important role of thallusin for the normal development of green macroalgae.
Like OPC-67683, Nitroimidazo-oxazine is a nitroimidazole that has demonstrated bactericidal and sterilizing activity against drug-resistant and non drug-resistant TB. Nitroimidazo-oxazine has also shown activity against both active and latent TB. In a 2002 agreement with the former biotechnology company Chiron, The TB Alliance is carrying out phase II clinical testing on Nitroimidazo-oxazine (Diacon et al. ). Nitroimidazo oxaine is also active against latent TB bacteria .In a latent state, bacteria are anaerobic and else replicating very slowly and non replicating.
The swab was inoculated onto blood agar, MacConkey’s agar and nutrient agar, mannitol salt agar and Sabouraud's dextrose agar and was incubated at 370C for 24 hrs for bacterial culture and at room temperature for fungal isolates. Next day the colonies were picked up and preliminary identification was done and the bacterial isolates were identified based on standard protocols. LPCB was done for the identification of fungal isolates after 48 to 72 hrs. ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTABILITY TEST Antibiotic sensitivity test of the bacterial isolates was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method2. The following were the antibiotics used for the study-amikacin (AK 30), nalidic acid (NA 30), erythromycin (E 15), vancomycin (VA 30), tetracycline (TE 30), cefoxitin (CX 30), rifampicin (RIF 5) ciproflaxicine (Cip 5), ceftazidime (CAZ 30), cefotaxime (CTX 30), cepifime (Cpm 30), cefoperazone (CPZ 75).
We added 1 ml of distilled water to test tubes labelled 2, 3,4 and 5. . To tube 1 we added 1ml of standard protein solution and recorded the concentration of the standard protein as 10mg/ml. To tube 2 we added 1ml of standard protein solution and shake it so that it can mix well. With a fresh pipette we removed 1ml from tube number 2 and added it to tube 3 then gently shake the tube. With another fresh pipette we removed 1ml from tube 3 and added it to tube 4, shake well.
A study by Karunanithi et al. (2000) showed that the bacteria produces antibiotic compounds, for example pyrollnitrin and phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, which create inhibition zones 12mm long, and in this way it inhibits the growth of pathogens. (Ganeshan & Manoj Kumar, 2005). In addition to this function, Pseudomonas inactivates the cell wall of fungi that degrade damaged plants. Its application in bioremediation comes from its ability to increase in number and change its macro structure in response to oil contamination.
MATERIALS METHODS 1.1 MATERIALS OF MTT ASSAY The Pin1 transcript and HEK-293 cells were the main components of this experiment. Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) was used for culturing the cells. PEI (Polyethylenimine) was used for both empty (mock) and Pin1 transcript containing vector. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5,diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide(5mg/ml) was used for detection of cell viability. Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) in 10 %, DMSO and 96 well plate microplate reader were the other materials of the experiment.