The same lifecycle is followed by all species of Salmonella as the cell is passed through the intestine with fecal matter and leave the host when defection has occur and through ingestion of the bacteria, Salmonella Typhi is then transferred to a new host, this happens through the consumption of contaminated water and food, while the bacteria passes through the stomach into the intestine and start its replication process. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT TO PROTECT HUMAN HEALTH Diagnosis of Typhoid bacteria is done by blood, stool couture and the serological testing. For the body fluid couture, sample of blood, urine or bone marrow is examine on equipment that will identify the growth of the bacteria under a microscope, this will identify if typhoid is present. The most sensitive test for the bacteria is the bone marrow couture. Treatment of the infection is usually done with antibiotics, such as Ciproflaxen, Ceftriaxone e.t.c, the antibiotics aid the lowering of the Salmonella Typhi from the body and as well protects fever and further
This parasite is actually tolerant to chlorine due to the fact that it has a hard outer shell. If you have a strong immune system, then you will certainly recover quickly after this disease, without seeing a doctor, but if your immune system is weak, then you will certainly be sick for a longer period of time. You will deal with diarrhea, vomiting, and even fever. Legionnaires ' Disease This is another unpleasant disease that can be contacted from public hot tubs. The Legionella germ can cause a severe type of pneumonia, which can be contacted with ease from inhaling bacteria from the steams that a hot tub produces.
2. You have been asked to set up a dilution series, and then use spread plates to determine the viable cell count. Why is it necessary to use a dilution series when isolating bacteria from a biological sample using spread plating? [5 MARKS] It is vital to use a dilution series to reduce the concentration of the original biological sample so it is easier to count the number of isolated colonies which are present on the spread plate. The diluted samples will have a workable number of colonies on the spread plate which can then be used to calculate the number of bacteria which were present in the original undiluted sample.
How is measles diagnosed? Doctors will usually be able to diagnose measles from the combination of symptoms, especially the rashes and the small spots inside your mouth. However, a simple blood or saliva test of a person is usually done to diagnose the disease Symptoms of measles: After exposure to virus, measles signs and symptoms appear in 10 to 14 days. Signs of measles typically include: • Fever • Dry cough • Runny
Back before the 1890’s Clostridium perfringens used to be known as Clostridium welchii. F.W. Andrews and E. Klein discovered that Clostridium perfringens was associated with food poisoning, and in just a couple years specifically 1892, this microorganism would be found in different types of gangrene, appendicitis, puerperal fever, and enteritis. (3) .. Gas gangrene was very widespread in World War 1, complicating 6% of open fractures and 1% of all open
This fever killing so many people is important because it's not a small amount. When it comes to that many people dying over a disease, something is needed to be done. Scarlet fever is a bacterial illness that develops in some people that have strep throat. In Frankenstein, a book written in the 1800s by an english writer named Mary Shelley, many of the Victor's closest people suffered from this illness. Scarlet fever was one of the main causes
The enzyme catalase is commonly found in animal and plant cells, but a substantial amount is found in liver. The liver detoxifies the blood to get rid of substances such as alcohols and drugs, in this case it will break down a toxic molecule called hydrogen peroxide H2O2 into 2 non-toxic products being oxygen O2 and water H2O. Other enzymes in the body that help with breaking down amino acids and fatty acids produce a significant amount of hydrogen peroxide, and without the enzyme catalase, hydrogen peroxide levels in our body could increase thus damaging tissue. A chemical reaction is shown below: 2H2O2 =2H2O + O2 This
Pediatric pneumonia is the most common cause of mortality in children. Although , there are cures for this infection , if not detected early , it can pose to be life threatening. Most cases of pediatric pneumonia are found in developing countries like Bangladesh , Nigeria and the Sub Saharan Region. According to WHO , as of 2013 , the causality rate caused by pneumonia is at 2 million, amongst children under the age of five. This dramatically rising number proves that there is a need to understand the etiology of this infection , and determine what factors can be assessed to help in early detection of pneumonia.
Most cases of cystitis are caused by E. coli, a type of bacteria usually found in the gastrointestinal tract. When men suffer from a UTI it is typically acquired from sexual contact. Some sexually transmitted diseases, like herpes or chlamydia, also are possible causes. Frequency This urinary problem can be a characteristic sign of a urinary tract infection. Because irritation and swelling reduces the bladder's ability to hold urine, even small amounts of urine cause discomfort.
BOTULINUM TOXIN The neurotoxins produced by the Clostridia species are among the most potent toxins known. Botulinum toxin, BoNT, is a poisonous substance produced within living cells by Clostridium Botulinum bacteria. Botulism poisoning results most frequently from the ingestion of contaminated food. Food must be cooked for a sufficient length of time, at 248 °F, for the heat resistant spores to die. Botulism also may result from a wound infection or enter the body v via the pulmonary tract, inhalational botulism (Dembek 339).
According to the AAP, a shiny nail is just as likely to give you tetanus as a rusty one. Clostridium tetani are the bacteria to blame for the Tetanus disease. The Encyclopedia of Human Diseases and Conditions states that the infection begins when the bacteria spores become active after moving deep within the body. Once the tetanus spores are active, they begin producing a toxin that attaches to the nerves around the area of the wound. The tetanus toxin spreads to the ends of the nerves of the spinal cord where they meet the muscles, resulting in severe muscle spasms powerful enough to tear muscles apart.
According to Ron Dagan, acute otitis media (middle ear infection) are most common in kids 3 months old to 3 years old. (Dagan p. 1). In Clinical Bacteriology of Recurrent Otitis Media with Effusion, it states, “antibiotic resistance has increased due to indiscriminate overuse and misuse of antibiotics.” The overuse of an antibiotic and/or using the wrong antibiotic to treat the sickness has made bacteria more resistant to the antibiotics. Later on in the passage, Dagan adds, “we collected nine hundred middle ear fluid samples for six hundred fifty four pediatric patients who underwent ventilation tube insertion due to OME…” “Antibiotic sensitivity tests showed that the two groups differed in sensitivity to penicillin and erythromycin, but no other antibiotics.” (Article abstract).Out of the nine hundred samples they took, the group showed the bacteria was defeated by the antibiotic penicillin and the antibiotic erythromycin but the other antibiotics didn’t touch the bacteria. The experiment showed people only two antibiotics were fighting off the bacteria.