Hence, turbulence intensity was kept 5% for pressure outlet with turbulent viscosity ratio of 10. Here, discretized model was exported to ANSYS Fluent 14.0 for solving the problem. As study was performed with velocity of vehicle at 40 m/s, the flow would be incompressible with variations in pressure around the body surface without altering the density of surrounding fluid. Hence, pressure based solver was employed with absolute velocity formulation and steady state flow
The catalytic converter was invented by a French mechanical engineer Eugene Houdry in the year 1930. A catalytic converter is a automobile pollution control device. It converts more toxic pollutants from automobile emissions into the less toxic pollutants. A catalytic converter used in a internal combustion engine fueled by either gasoline (petrol) or diesel. The catalytic converter is generally divided into three parts (Robert et al.
THREE-WAY CATALYTIC CONVERTER A three-way catalytic converter is a device used to cause a desirable chemical reaction to take place in the exhaust flow. It is used mainly for conversion of exhaust gases considered unfriendly to a mixture of desirable gases considered environmental friendly.1 The by-products produced by the engine is not associated the performance of the engine, rather they are products expected from combustion of fuel. The system is place adjacently or in line with exhaust system and is used to cause a desirable conversion at a desirable efficiency.1 Exhaust gases one would expect from exhaust system: • Carbon monoxide. • HC. • NOx.
High cetane number fuels generally cause lower combustion noise, improved control of combustion, resulting in increased engine efficiency and power output. CN = (u40 + 17.8) 1587.9/ ρ40 Where; u40 is the Kinematic viscosity at 40°C, mm2/sec ρ40 is the density of the fuel at 40°C, Kg/ m3 Flash Point The flash point is the temperature
The pressure of inlet gas is measured by pressure gauge (2) and the temperature of inlet gas is measured by thermocouple (7). In order to uniformly divide the compressed air, a pneumatic connector is used which divide the incoming stream in to two separate streams and supplies to two nozzles of the vortex
2.5.2 Apparent properties of FP emulsion The apparent properties of the FP emulsion were determined via simple observations and tests. 2.5.3 Zeta potential and particle size Zetasizer Nano ZS particle size analyzer (Malvern, UK) was used to measure the zeta potential, particle size, and the distribution of the FP emulsion. The particle size range of the microsphere was 5– 10 µm, and the microspheres should have good stability in the emulsion without coagulation. 2.5.4 Thermal property analysis 5 mg FP emulsion film sample was weighted, and the thermal property was analyzed using a Q500 thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) (TA Co., USA), in the temperature range 30–80 °C at a heating rate of 10 °C/min in nitrogen atmosphere. 2.5.5 Atomic force probe scanning microscope (AFM) observation Small amount of FP
NigamI (2009) experimentally studied on Pressure Drop and heat transfer of turbulent flow in tube in tube helical heat exchanger at the pilot plant scale to analysis and distribution of the fluid flow and heat transfer under turbulent flow condition. The experiments were carried out with hot compressed air in the inner tube and cooling water in the outer tube in the countercurrent mode of operation. The flow rate of compressed air flowing in the inner tube was varied for Reynolds numbers from 14,000 to 86,000 and pressure of compressed air was varied from 10 to 30 kgf/cm2. On the basis of the experimental measurements, new correlations for friction factor and nusselt number in the inner tube of the heat exchanger were developed with deviation of ±4.6 to ±5%. Rahul Kharat, Nitin Bhardwaj*, R.S.
As a result of our plotting, we got lnτ = 0,0032lnγ+4,4229 which is straight line. Also, R2 of this line is 0,8928 which shows close to linearity. Finally, according to our plotting, results show that our puree sample is pseudoplastic fluid which has exponential variation in shear stress vs shear rate and linear variation in logarithm of shear stress vs logarithm of shear rate. C) Vibro Viscometer Temperature(1/K) ln(Viscosity) 0,003288 5,505331536 0,003268 5,351858133 0,003253 5,247024072 0,00321 5,030437921 0,003162 4,795790546 0,003124 4,123903364 0,002977 3,317815773 Temperature(oC) (Viscosity) (mPa.s) 31,1 246 33