Cataphora And Semantic Reference

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Reference is the specific nature of the information that is signaled for retrieval. Based on the place of reference, the interpretation of reference can be divided into endophora (textual) and exophoric (situational) reference (Halliday and Hasan, 1976: 33).
When the interpretation of a reference lies within the boundaries of text, it is called endophoric relation. This relation forms cohesive ties within the text. There are two kinds of endophoric relations: anaphora and cataphora (Halliday and Hasan, 1976: 17). Anaphora is the presupposition of something that has gone before, whether in the preceding sentence or not. It is a form of the presupposition that refers to some previous item. In contrary, cataphora refers to the presupposition in
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Even in semantics, it is recognized that not all elements of a language refer to specific objects in the outside world, chiefly the grammatical or function words (e.g. prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, and pronouns). Pronouns, however, like other classes of words, can point to something in the environment, whose semantic reference will yet change from situation to situation.. In this connection, Beaugradne & Dressler (1981: 60) emphasize that using cohesive devices shortens and simplifies the surface text, as one obvious device pro-forms are economical, short words empty of their own particular content, which can stand in the surface text in the place of more determinate, context-activating expressions. These pro-forms allow text users to keep content current inactive storage without having to restate everything. The best pro-forms as Beaugrande & Dressler confirm, are PRONOUNS which function in the place of the noun phrase or noun with which they co-refer. In this well-known children's rhyme: (I.I) There was an old woman who lived in a shoe. She had so many children, she didn't know what to do. the pronouns 'she' makes it unnecessary to keep saying 'the old woman who lived in a shoe', 'the old woman', or even 'the woman'. If we find (c) below awkward, this is because normally, in genres other than children's first readers,…show more content…
So does reference. Both context and co-context have crucial roles in the instance of reference. The environment in which the presupposition is identifiable determines whether the reference is endophoric relation (endophora) or exophoric relation (exophora)
(Halliday and Hasan, 1976).
When the source of identification lies outside the co-text and can be found only by examining the context, it is called exophoric reference; when the source of the identification lies in the text, the reference is endophoric. Endophoric reference has a function in the text either as anaphoric, that is a reference to the preceding text, or cataphoric, that is a reference to the following text. For example:
Stop doing that here. I‟m trying to work.
(Halliday and Hasan, 1985: 76)
The item that cannot be interpreted, except we involve the context in which the

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