is the results of the effect of enzyme concentration on the potato enzyme. The 100% enzyme concentration had the highest average rate of O2 production being 7.79ml/min. This is because when there is a 100% concentration there is more molecules of the catalase for the hydrogen peroxide to react with. As the concentration is being diluted, the concentration of the catalase is decreasing so the molecules are less likely to collide and react. When the enzyme is at a 0% concentration there should not be any 02 produced and this is where some errors may have occurred.
The 1:1 hexane to ethyl acetate solvent resulted in the best separation because it not only showed extra spots that the other solvent mixtures did not have, but also the 4 spots were relatively dispersed with Rf values at 0.77, 0.56, 0.27, and 0.10 (Figure 2). Missing spots were also noted on the hexane only TLC plate. The orange eluent was ultimately chosen as our major product because it had significantly different TLC results than the 3 yellow eluents with the same Rf of 0.23 (Figure 3). The percent yield for this purification method was 248% and the extrapolated percent purified yield was around 135 %, which are both erroneously high. These high percent yield may be due to extra water weight or not fully evaporated
The first step is where the substrate enters the active site on the enzyme. It is held there by hydrophobic interactions between the exposed non-polar groups of the enzyme residues and the side chain of the substrate. The second step is where the hydroxyl group on Serine 195, aided by the histidine-serine hydrogen bonding, preforms its nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of an aromatic amino acid. While this happens, it also transfers the hydroxyl hydrogen to the histidine nitrogen. The nucleophilic attack pushes the carbonyl electrons onto the carbonyl oxygen, which forms a short-lived intermediate.
RuBisCO has a catalytic rate of a few CO2 molecules per second at 25 °C 19. Besides it has a low affinity for atmospheric CO2 and uses O2 as an alternative substrate. For these reasons RuBisCO is an inefficient enzyme as the initial CO2-fixing enzyme for photosynthesis. Therefore, plants and algae must contribute a major part of their nitrogen to RuBisCO. The total soluble protein content inside the plants can comprise up to 50%20.
The Benedict’s test is useful for reducing sugars. Reducing sugars are a carbohydrate that can either be straight chains with an aldehyde group at the end or as ring forms with a ketone group (Hill, 1982). Monosaccharides and most disaccharides will reduce copper (II) sulfate. The Benedict’s solution contains cupric ions and the aldehyde groups at the end of the sugars will reduce the cupric ions to cuprous ions (Cu+). There will be a precipitate of copper (I) oxide when the cuprous ions combine with oxygen (Hill,
The peak at 1816 cm−1could is assigned to carbonyl stretching vibrations of carboxylic acids. The band found at 1679 cm−1could be assigned to characteristic asymmetrical stretch of carboxylate group. The symmetrical stretch of carboxylate group can be attributed to the bands present at 1491 and 1354 cm−1. The peaks at 1105 and 789 cm−1were due to the C–O stretching vibrations of polyols, ether and alcoholic
The former is the less refined of the two, and it can only be used in one way—dabbing that is. On the other hand, the latter is pulverized and processed crystals that can be used in many different ways, including dabbing, and so on. How Is CBD Isolate Made? The process begins with planting a high CBD strain such as hemp, Cannatonic or Charlotte’s Web and tending to it up to maturity. The reason high CBD strains are considered the most ideal sources of CBD isolate is that they are rich in cannabionoids and contain more of these chemical compounds than THC and other chemical compounds that make up the marijuana plant.
Self association due to H-bonds also become weaker due to steric hindrance to H-bond formation in 4-methylpentan-2-ol as compared to Hexan-1-ol which cause more positive VE values for 4-methylpentan-2-ol. The shape of the molecule is another factor which contributes more positive value of VE to 4-methylpentan-2-ol. The Hexan-1-ol molecule is planer and elongated in same fashion as those of n-alkanes. The alignment of these molecules on mixing is ordered due to Vander Waal’s forces. The 4- methylpentan-2-ol molecules are bulky and spherical in shape.
Other amide types include RC(O)NHR and RNH2. Amides are found in a wide variety of things, they are used in the production of drugs such as paracetamol and LSD, but are also found in DNA. Amides are similar to amines (RNH2) in that they are both derivatives of ammonia and are both bases, though amides are considerably weak when compared to amines (amines have a pKa of around 9.5, while amides have a pKa of around -0.5). Therefore amides do not have clearly noticeable acid-base properties in water. The lack of basicity within amide is due to the C=O, or carbonyl group, within the amide as it has electron withdrawing properties causing the lone pair of electrons within nitrogen to become delocalised.
Yeast extract in the agar supply sources of nitrogen, carbon, and vitamin for the metabolism of organisms. Xylose, Lactose, and Sucrose acts as the fermentable carbohydrate sources. Sodium Deoxycholate acts as the selective agent while Sodium Chloride provides buffering capacity. Phenol red is used as the indicator. The selective agents in the agar such as Sodium Thiosulfate and Ferric Ammonium Citrate support visualization of hydrogen sulfide production under alkaline conditions.
HFCS is used often due to being cheap. But high fructose corn syrup is chemically related to cane sugar. Most scientists believe that HFCS cannot be so important to obesity because it isn’t proven. Although HFCS may contribute to obesity, there are more factors that affect a person’s weight. Some people argue that high fructose corn syrup is the reason behind obesity, but overeating, genetics, and environment more greatly affects obesity.