Kant’s principal of morality is a standard of rationality he called the “Categorical Imperative.” He believes that there is one, ‘super rule’ that helps you decide if the maxims you are following are morally sound or not. Kant believes one’s duty means acting in accordance with certain moral laws/imperatives, “so act that you use humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of another, always at the same time as an end, never merely as a means.” [Section 2. pg 14]. Therefore, Kant is saying that moral worth appears to require not only that one’s actions be motivated by duty, but also that no other motives are a driving factor in getting to that end. He further elaborates on this by stating that reason does not simply find the means to end, it decides on proper ends. This all leads to the conclusion that someone of moral worth in the eyes of Kant is only morally ideal if their actions are done from
According to Mill, “acts should be classified as morally right or wrong only if the consequences are of such significance that a person would wish to see the agent compelled, not merely persuaded, and exhorted, to act in a preferred matter. A moralist can sum up the units of pleasure and the units of pain for everyone likely to be affected, immediately and in the future, and could take the balance as a measure of the overall good or evil tendency of an action” (West). The moral value of an action can be based on what is called hedonism. This says the only thing can be good is pleasure or happiness. Utilitarianism shows how moral questions can have objectively true answers.
The AHA’s discussion of dialogue and truth connect to the ethical theory of Kantianism. Kantianism is a form of Deontology that provides us with the Universal Law Formula and the Humanity as an End in Itself Formula. The Universal Law Formula says that we should treat others in the way that we expect others to treat us. The Humanity as an End in Itself Formula explains that humans should never be used as a means to an end or we should simply respect humans. Through these formulas come the idea of imperfect and perfect duties.
But are we free when we seek pleasure and avoid pain? Kant’s notion of freedom connects to morality, which displays contrast between duty and inclination, explaining how only the motive of duty, doing the right thing for the right reason, confers moral worth of an action. Kant believes that everything in nature, including humans, “works in accordance with laws,” that all actions must be appointed by law, The formula of universal law that basically states how you should treat humanity as an end rather than as a means. He says we should only act upon the maxim, a principle that gives a reason for action, without contradiction. Davis claims that law is not always reliable when insuring justice; moreover, Kant can support
There are two types of utilitarianism: Act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism. Act Utilitarianism is a belief in which, an individual’s actions are moral as long as the actions produce the greatest outcome possible. Rule utilitarianism is a belief in which, an action is morally right, as long as it justified in accordance to a particular law. Utilitarianism is less complicated to understand (compared to other moral theories) because it consists of “doing whatever produces the best consequences” (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Virtue Ethics). Mill viewed the greatest happiness principle as the cornerstone of morals, he
When considering the metaethical status of moral claims, ethical objectivism and moral skepticism dominate the two sides of the debate. The ethical objectivist claims that moral features are an objective part of reality existing independently of humans, or human attitudes. In opposition, moral skeptics deny the overall objectivist claim, explaining morality through several different theories such as nihilism, relativism, and expressivism. A controversial feature of moral judgments is that they may be inherently motivational, and guide the actions of those who hold the moral judgment. Although controversial, the premise has been influential in guiding metaethical discussions.
Semi-compatibilism allows us to confidently attribute moral responsibility even if we are unsure about determinism. This sets Fischer aside from most philosophers of his time because they were all very interested in how free will and determinism are related (compatible) while Fischer glosses over the aspect of free will and states that moral responsibility and determinism are compatible regardless. Guidance control is comprised of two elements, the first being that one has to be a morally responsible agent whose actions must be the agents own, and secondly the crucial capacities used by a morally responsible agent are capacities for recognizing and responding to reasons for
The Formal and Non-Formal Values Controversy in Kant’s Moral Philosophy This paper will focus on the Formal and Non-Formal Values controversy in Kant’s Moral Philosophy. Primary in this line of inquiry is the question of whether Kant explicitly or implicitly support the formal and Non-Formal Values in his theory. In recent, the Kantian philosophers, Korsgarrd 1990, O’Neil 1992, Wood 2000; as the formal value opponents, claim that such value derives from Kant’s formal ethics where moral law is formal and universal, the universality is a syntactic aspect of every permissible, universalized maxim, which is a formally structured maxim. And the unity of three formulations of categorical imperative tends to emphasize the formal value of humanity,
In closing, Kant makes for a wide range on what can be termed as an absolute moral duty, with his argument of the principle of universalizability and the principle of humanity. Kant argument shows that I should do things whether I want to do so or not. “With the results [being] that if [I] ignore or disobey them, [I] [am] acting contrary to reason (i.e. irrationally),” (FE, 168). Being a rational being is something that human beings are able to achieve.
Kant Grounding is a believer in morality, more into the categorical perspective. He follows the objective, necessary, and unconditional rules that we need to think before agreeing on a desire. I feel like he believes the point on doing something is for the outcome can be good for something, instead of making you happy. Putting how the action is going to get to you instead of the effect that it will give you. Albert Camus writes about a character that is very ethical.