The lower end of the humerus has two rounded knobs the lateral and medial condyles. Between the two of these is a hole that extends completely through the bone, this is called the supratrochlear foramen. The ulna and radius act as one bone and are held together firmly by ligaments and always move together. The upper end of the ulna has a hook like process that fits perfectly in the supratrochlear foramen of the humerus. On the ulna there is a ridge called the trochlear notch, this fits against and rotates between the medial and lateral condyles on the humerus. At the base of the trochlear notch and at either side of it are the medial and lateral coronoid process that both the lateral and medial condyles of the humerus rest on the support the dogs weight. The upper end of the radius lies between the coronoid process of the ulna also supporting the dogs
Vocal communication happens to form an important part of the Howler Monkey’s social behavior life. They usually howl during the mornings and evenings to assure their surrounding neighbors of their presence. They sound more like whooping bark or roar that could be heard over considerable distances. They also continue to howl when they feel like they are in danger. Based on their howl sound throughout the whole day, they are believed to be the loudest of all land animals. “Though they are territorial animals, howler monkeys do not tend to engage in overt conflict with nearby troops and in some cases may share an overlapping territory” (Shah). Most of their movement includes them moving from one branch to the other. The reason why they climb fast from one tree to another is by the help of their tails. Howler monkeys have prehensile tails, or tails that can grip onto anything. According to National Zoo, ”Males measure 24 to 26 inches (60 to 65 centimeters) long with a 24 to 26 inch tail (60 to 65 centimeters).” The Howler Monkeys use their tail to help them grip onto branches as one tries to eat and move around the same in treetops. The tail of a howler monkey acts as a fifth limb for them, which is very ideal for their movement through the
Through history there has been evidence to help support the claim that climate change has influenced the evolution of primates. Scientific evidence has proven that during certain climate spikes such as the swamp age, apes in the given territories that encompassed Africa led a migration to the Asia and Europe territories. The same climate changes that was responsible for the creation of the Swiss Alpes and other phenomena, has been associated with the adaptation, extinction, and migration. As weather changed in certain areas, the land became more dry making it harder to obtain and hunt food. Climate change, in theory, led to the extinction of the Sivapithecids apes because of the inability that the species has to obtaining food.
The arboreal hypothesis, put forth by Smith and Jones, explains the primates characteristics as adaptations to a life in trees. Their 3d perceiving eyes, intelligence, and grasping hands/feet all working in tandem to make swinging from tree to tree more effective. The loss of a developed sense of smell in favor for these adaptations which were more important for the life in the trees.
Millions of years ago, primates developed in a wild post-dinosaur world and have revolutionized into the undomesticated mammals found in the subtropical regions of preset-day Africa, Asia, and South America. Primates are mammals that are characterized by having nails on the hands and feet, a short snout, flexible first digits, and a large brain. Almost all nonhuman primate species can be found in zoos all over the world. The condition of nonhuman primates in zoos are important because the mistreatment of animals is frowned upon in society and people belong to the primate order and share many characteristics with greater apes and other primates. The introduction of primates in zoos has led to advances in the health, lifespan, and animal
Near the junction between a single ancestral species branching off into two distinctive species, there will undoubtedly be large similarities between the two species. These similarities are expected to diminish over many generations as the two species become reproductively incompatible. However, If we consider the "grey area" that is the time between two strains of a species becoming reproductively distinct, we can why it is so advantageous for distinguishable facial features to arise; distinct facial features serve as a form of genetic authentication that allows identification of individuals with certain genes. These are the exact genotypic traits that must be propagated in a subset of the ancestral species for a budding new species to adapt to a new environment and/or escape the competition for resources from the original ancestral species by developing a niche. Hence, two characterizing features of primates with distinguishable facial features are genetic diversity and capacity for adaptive radiation.
They use their tails for holding branches and hanging on to trees and branches.Their tails can be as big as their bodies.The male howler monkeys have larger throats for deeper howls.Their howls are considered the loudest howl in the
Zoos have been present in society as attraction sites for hundreds of decades. According to the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums, there are approximately 10,000-12,000 zoos and animal parks in the world. Zoos have numerous enclosures dedicated solely to one animal species, with primate exhibits being one of the most universally common among all zoos.
It was in this region that apes stopped living in the trees and had to learn to live in the Savannas and adapted to using two feet. Being bipedal increased survival by being able to use their arms for carrying food over long distances and avoiding predators. It also helped them migrate with ease as needed. Hominids also developed opposable thumbs. As their observations and memory
Orangutans have an enormous arm span. A male can stretch his arms 2 meters from fingertip to fingertip which is a reach longer than his standing height of about 1.5 meters. When orangutans do stand, their hands nearly touch the ground. Other physical aspects include their large strong bodies, thick neck, short legs, no tail and as mentioned before reddish-brownish fur covering the body. By their gender, (except the obvious difference) these apes do vary phisically in their weight and height,
Plenty of observations and studies have been done over the years on different primates and their behavior or cognition. We have studied their every move and we are always making calculations about their intellegence, or lack thier of and comparisons of how similar or different they are not only from each other but also how similar or different they are from us, the human race. One of these many studies that I have found to be very intriguing is whether or not certain primates have the capability to plan ahead for things. In capativity numerous studies have been produced to test chimpanzees on whether or not they can make plans for the future ori f they plan step by step. Some chimpanzees have even been observed in captivity, such as Santino,
Tropical rain forests, which are found in Africa, South America and Southeast Asia, have warm, humid climate and heavy seasonal rainfall (Supriatna et al. 1996; Umapathy et al. 2003). The rainy season lasts from about September to May, with average monthly rainfall between 140 and 300 mm (5.5 and 11.8 in) and from June through August or September there is less rainfall received in Southeast Asia (Lucas & Corlett 1991; Yeager 1996; Umapathy et al. 2003). Besides, tropical rain forests are home to world’s highest biodiversity including a highly complex and diverse vertebrate fauna (Harmelin-Vivien & Bourliere 1989). However, tropical rain forests are always manipulated and exploited for economic purposes (Mergen, 1981). The tropical rainforests
The Pongo Pignaeus also known as the Orangutan shares 96.4% of human genes which makes them highly intelligent which is very interesting. These apes reside (live) on lowland forests and feast on wild fruit like lychees, mangosteens and figs. The Orangutan originates from Asian countries such as Malaysia. Its story is simple just like every other endangered animal from Asia, their forest habitat is being destroyed quickly by humans for agricultural use from small farms to large commercial plantations. The orangutans are not only dying because of their habitat being destroyed, humans are killing the orangutans prey species like birds and small mammals. Their fruit-eating and seed-dispersing is for ecological use which helps preserve the tropical
Saguinus bicolar bicolar, known as the Pied Tamarin is a new world monkey that can be found in forests and swamps of Brazil. They often are grouped in either multi male or female. Their diet is mostly on fruits, flowers and insects. Also, they have a forelimb proportion and a terrestrial locomotion. (Helen Branch House – Exhibit) They have grasping hands, feet and tails. I was not able to see it with my own eyes, but new world monkeys are known for having grasping tails compared to old world monkeys. I describe their exhibit as a rain forest type. I realize that Lincoln Park Zoo tries their best to make their animals feel at home. Pied Tamarins tend to stick their tongues out and groom each other; they also stay on trees most of the time sitting.
Sex determination is an intricate part of forensic medicine, forensic anthropology and medico legal cases. It is also one of the most difficult tasks as fragmentary crania are very common due to warfare, explosions, intentional attempt to obscure the identity of the victim (3) and thus requires great expertise. It has been reported that when the complete skeleton of the victim is recovered, sex can be determined with 100% accuracy. This percentage decreases to 98% when only the pelvis and crania are present for determining sex, 95% when only the pelvis or pelvis and long bone and 80-90%when only the long bones are presented to forensic experts for sex determination. (59). Predominantly there are two approaches for sex determination: