Along with the usage of finger joints, apes have long arms that are adaptive for knuckle-walking. The ulna has a horseshoe shaped bend towards the proximal end that function as a support beam for the humerus. Since Gorillas do not walk in an erect manner, evolutionary accommodations have been made in favor for these massive apes. Length and width of certain vertebraes in the spinal cord have been fashion to suit gorilla’s primary source of locomotion. The ischium is shorter than that of a human, while the sacrum and ilia are broader.
This type of genu recurvatum could lead to increase damage of soft tissue and genu valgum where the lower legs rotate outwards (Credi, 2014). The third type of genu recurvatum is non-rotatory deformity recurvatum where the ankle and foot are normal just the knee is hyperextended. This type of genu recurvatum produces stress to the posterior soft tissue of the knee (Credi, 2014). There are people who train to become hyperextended because of the advantage it gives them in certain sports. All though the process is dangerous, the athletes that usually train to get genu recurvatum are children
This graph was adapted based on Dobson’s “Socioecological correlates of facial mobility in nonhuman anthropoids” (Dunbar 1839). Similarly, Dunbar also used another graph that examines and compares the relationships of the group size to the brain size and neo cortex ratio among female primates. This graph was adapted based on the Lehmann & Dunbar’s “Network cohesion, group size and neocortex size in female-bonded Old World primates” (Dunbar 1841). Interestingly, just like the other previous social mobility index, this graph also shows how the time devoted in low-level social grooming is directly proportional to the size of the group (Dunbar
The physical nature of a primate body as wells as its movement is a unique factor in the animal kingdom. There has been continuous change through locomotion and body configuration throughout each grades of primate evolution. In this essay I will be discussing the modifications in time as well as theories in each grade of primate. This research paper will try to elaborate on the evolutionary modifications and some of the theories that have been proposed for these changes throughout our and other primate evolution. With time primates development was due to environmental changes.
“Non-human primates, due to their level of intelligence when compared to other animals, and also due to their evolutionary closeness to man are maintained in several types of captive facilities like laboratories, zoological parks, animal circuses and conservation breeding centres” (Mallapur 2005). They are kept for observation and studies but many of these captive conditions evoke abnormal behavior patterns among non-human primates. Maintaining a satisfied non-human primate in captivity can be challenging. They are many important variables to take into consideration. When the enclosure does not suit the needs of a nonhuman primate it can affect their behavior physically and psychologically.
Introduction: The Anterior Cruciate Ligament Problem: Do gastrocnemius/soleus and hamstring tendon strains change the biomechanics of running in athletes and increase the risk of ACL tears? Rationale: To determine if multiple witnessed ACL tears post calf strains were a coincidence or if these injuries increase the risk of ligament tears due to a change in biomechanics. Hypothesis: Gastrocnemius/soleus and hamstring strains increase the risk of ACL tears. Review of Background The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is located deep inside the knee joint and connects the femur to the tibia. It is given the name “cruciate” because it runs in the opposite direction of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), forming an “x” or cross pattern.
For example, using hands for toolmaking and other complex activities in turn selects for increased encephalization. Environment can also influence adaptation i.e. Hominins with complex ecological behaviours will develop large brains. Lastly, some Paleoanthropologists argue encephalization is driven by social changes. Hominin hunter gatherers, developed cooperative foraging behaviours requiring development of complex
Matches the graded modulus of the spongy bones which forms the articulating surface. Actually bones are composite materials which are composed of matrix of collagen fibers, impregnated by in organic salts. Finite element model is widely used method in biomechanics because the structure of biological tissues in biomechanics. Different type of loding situations applied on the bones are still difficult to model(or) design which are also not easy for perception of specific problem and indulge to get the unique solution. To calculate the stresses and stress distributions in the femur bone some assumption are required to get joint reactions and also deformation values.
• The longer neck Giraffe is more likely to pass on that particular gene to its offspring. meaning that they would also have a longer neck, meaning that they would survive longer. • Over a longer period of time all Giraffes would have really long necks meaning that they would live longer but there is also some small Giraffes.
Intervertebral Disc Disease Intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) is a congenital disease meaning it is present at birth. IVDD is a trauma to the spinal cord that is caused from the hardening of the discs, the discs loose moisture and harden, which no longer cushion the vertebrae along the spine. When the disc weakens to a certain degree it herniates. It can be difficult to pin point the beginning of symptoms. Some dogs only have one episode in their life time.
This is due to a large neonatal cranium, and body size, along with the rotation of the neonate (Grabowski 2012). The series of rotations is what distinguishes modern humans from great apes, lesser apes and monkeys (Weaver and Hublin 2009). Fetal rotation is necessary