The agriculture sector in Ethiopia plays pivotal roles in economic growth, poverty alleviation, employment creation, foreign exchange earnings and food security. Despite the enormous contribution over the past years, its significance is limited because of various factors and hence it is becoming increasingly difficult to meet the food requirements of the growing population (Jon, 2007; Abera, 2011; UNDP, 2013). One of the significant contributors for its deprived performance is the low productivity of the sector in general and cereal production in particular over the past years (Alemayehu, 2009; Alemayehu et al. 2012). Such low productivity leads to increasing poverty and food insecurity of rural poor farm households in the country.
Famine and Human Agency As the majority of people already know, famine is an extreme shortage or widespread scarcity of food in a particular region caused by a number of different factors. Causes of this disastrous phenomenon included issues such as crop failure, over populated areas or population imbalance and even government politics. In places where there is famine present, people do not have enough food available to eat which results in weight loss in adults and stunted growth in children. If a famine continues for a long period of time it can cause malnutrition, an outbreak of infectious diseases, starvation and begins to increase the mortality. Tragically we tend to see the young die first and often the diseases will kill more people
Water scarcity is lack of sufficient, clean, and safe water in a given region. This is very common as it affects every continent around the world and almost 2.8 billion people. Water scarcity often occurs and is a dominant isuue in the world since it threatens human health and economy. One of the main causes of water Scarcity is water pollution. Water pollution is the contamination of water due to unhealthy human activities.
Periods of drought are characterized by a shortage or abnormally low amount of water in the environment. There are numerous causes of droughts. The most common cause is a scarcity in rainfall. An extended duration without rain will lead to a region to drying out. With human beings continually procreating, the world’s population is rapidly increasing.
The role of livestock farming has grown significantly throughout the world and more especially in developing countries. Livestock production plays a major role in agriculture and sustainable development in Africa. Sheep play a very important role in the South African livestock industry (Brundy et al., 2005, Mapiliyao et al., 2012). Livestock farming has great potential to alleviate household food insecurity and poverty in most of the world's communities. Smallholder livestock keepers represent around 20 percent of the world's population and farm most of the agricultural land in the tropics (FAO, 2012).
This has caused many of North Korea’s citizens to become malnourished, and in some cases, even the victims of extreme famine. It may go without saying, but famine of this like is most certainly a Human Rights violation. To that note, at no point in time were conditions worse in North Korea than from the years 1994 until 1998 – when North Korea endured most extreme famine. This stemming from a serve food supply shortage, combined with severe flooding, and droughting, throughout the nation. The fact that the 1994-1998 food shortage was exacerbated by a series of floods, and droughts, in no way renders the State innocent.
As climate change causes water scarcity and a sombre flooding that leads to an outbreak of diseases (Obsi and Sima, 2015). Extreme weather causes deaths especially in developing countries; a lot of fishing grounds have been depleted, flooding’s, storms and droughts are destroying crops harvest particularly in areas that are prone to the adverse effect of climate change.
As a result, thousands are starving and becoming malnourished. It will continue if nothing is done. This famine has harmed human beings and has put them under stress. Thus, they have little food and are experiencing many hardships. The food security in Somalia has dropped substantially due to a famine that has caused thousands to die from starvation, if there is no aid given to these malnourished people, the country will break down in security causing people to be defenseless and at risk.
Other challenges affecting food and nutrition security include high prices and the main concern is food price inflation that often exceeds the general inflation. Furthermore, climate change is considered a major greatest threat to agriculture and food security in the 21st century, particularly in many of the poor, agriculture-based countries of sub-Saharan Africa with their low capacity to effectively cope. The impacts of climate change already being experienced in many parts of the world are expected to lead to disproportionately negative food insecurity