There has been many cases of people getting put in jail for crimes they did not commit. There has also been many cases where these innocent people lose years of their life in prison for it. Some of these people who were put in jail innocent fought through it and had hope and one day were proven innocent and set free. Ari Melber, a publisher for NBC News states that: ‘’In 2017 around 149 people spent and average of 15 years in prison’’ (Jailed).
Thesis: Police interrogations can occasionally lead to false confessions due to misclassification, coercion, and contamination. I. The phrase “Innocent until proven guilty” is a popular statement among law enforcement and government employees, but this statement is not always upheld, as various errors, such as misclassification, are a major cause of false confessions. A. Misclassification errors are caused by “investigator bias,” where the investigator goes into the interrogation believing the suspect is guilty. (Keene)
It is unlikely that social consequences of false memories can be avoided. Elizabeth Loftus was intrigued to study false memories, and is perhaps personally responsible for subsequent developments throughout the history of false memories. Some of this history addresses various theories aimed at isolating how or why false memories occur. These include Source Monitoring Framework, Activation Monitoring Theory, Fuzzy Trace Theory, and strategies for persuasion which can lead to the development of false memory. Such persuasion leads to the present discussion concerning how persuasion in the judicial system has created false confessions and wrongful eyewitness testimonies, due to the Misinformation Effect.
Sexual Harassment: Dressing for a Hostile Environment. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 11 (3), Retrieved August 13, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-187049621/sexual-harassment-dressing-for-a-hostile-environment Hartmus, D.M., & Niblock, S.B. (2000). Elements of a Good Sexual Harassment Policy. The Public Manager, 29 (1), Retrieved August 13, 2012 from
In early interrogations it was common for police officers to use physically abusive interrogation techniques such as the rubber hose to convince suspects to confess to a crime, whether they are innocent of guilty. Fred Inbau came up with a different technique that relied on presenting a large amount of fabricated or true evidence to get the suspect to confess. This technique was very effective in getting confessions, it has an 80% confession rate. Unfortunately, some of the confessions are false confessions, we do not know how many exactly. The first step of the Reid Technique, a similar coercive technique to the one Inbau devised, was to watch the suspect and determine whether or not he or she is lying during the interrogation based on behavioral analysis; which is severely flawed and does not actually help us determine if someone is lying.
(1999). The Culture of Fear: Why Americans Are Afraid of the Wrong Things. New York: Basic. Kappeler, V. E., & Potter, G. W. (2005). The mythology of crime and criminal justice. Long Grove, Ill: Waveland Press.
His areas of study are Juvenile delinquency, Youth violence and Criminological theory. The main argument of the source is that General strain theory provides and explanation of crime and delinquency and that it is the latest and broadest form of strain theory. General Strain Theory represents a revision and extension of prior strain theories. “General strain theory is distinguished from other criminological theories by the central role it assigns to negative emotions in the etiology of offending. It is also distinguished by the emphasis it places on particular strains, especially strains involving negative social relations “ (Brezina, 2018).
People often confess to crimes they did not commit and this can be attributed to a number of reasons. Psychologists believe because people are responsive to reinforcements and thus are subject to principles of conditioning. In addition, people are social beings and vulnerable to the influences from other people. Modern day police interrogations use these biological responses to their advantage to elicit conformity, compliance, obedience, and persuasion in suspects.
So why do wrongful convictions occur? Witness misidentification makes up for most known wrongful convictions. Evidence shows that in approximately 75% of all wrongful convictions, erroneous eyewitness identifications play a key role. (Thompson, 2009)
http://www.newsmax.com/FastFeatures/felons-voting-rights-history/2015/04/16/id/638889/ "Disfranchisement." West 's Encyclopedia of American Law. 2005. Retrieved May 01, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3437701425.html “Felon Voting.” ProCon. 2008.
When the personal biases interject themselves
The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(5), 939-46. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.snhu.edu/docview/220467084?accountid=3783 Gap Identification
If you were put into a flawed society how would you act? The main character Abigail in the play The Crucible is in a flawed society and in order to survive she is mischievous and has to lie about things in order to survive. She wants John Proctor to herself and his wife dead. But along the way something called witchcraft comes along and it isn't that good. If you say you were doing witchcraft you're safe from hanging but if you refuse to witchcraft you will be hung.
Fear breeds dishonesty and dishonesty breeds dishonor. Today's students often find themselves as unwilling informants and police officers, serving as honor watchdogs upon their own classmates out of fear of the consequences they will face if they don't. This student on student judgement solely cultivates a culture of distrust and suspicion instead of one of honor, integrity and respect. For the honor system to be truly effective, it must be revised to have classmates solely serve as each others judges, through honor councils. The honor code itself also must be redefined so that it can serve as a guideline of the values members of the community should uphold, instead of a system of rigid rules and consequences and do’s and don’ts, meant to terrify