There are many factors that effect soil pH such as precipitation, burning fossil fuel and parental materials in which the soils form from. Precipitation is one of the major factors that effect soil pH. Higher precipitation will cause the soil pH to decrease because Calcium and Magnesium gets leached away from the soil. Acid rain can also cause a significant change in the soil pH and this is caused by such things as gases produced when burning fossil fuel. When the acidifying elements remain in the gases produced, acid rain will occur causing the soil pH to decrease and become more acidic which leaches many of the soil nutrients.
According to many sources, Sydney 's number-one environmental problem is land degradation. Land degradation is caused by many seriously damaging environmental impacts. The most serious things include overgrazing by sheep, rabbits, soil nutrient exhaustion, soil erosion, man-made droughts, weeds, misguided governmental policies and salinization. In Sydney, the people kill, ruin and pollute more than half of all earthbound animals and plant species, sustainable freshwater supplies and soil. Deforestation can occur quickly especially in the Blue Mountains, through fire or clear-felling to make way for plantations, crops or pasture.
Drought frequently results in crop failure, while high rainfall intensities result in low infiltration and high runoff causing enhanced soil erosion and land degradation. Land degradation in the form of soil erosion and declining land fertility is a serious challenge to agricultural productivity and economic growth (Lemenih,
Agricultural land expansion is generally viewed as the main source of deforestation contributing around 60 per cent of total tropical deforestation (Sumit and Ghosh, et al., 2012). Shifting cultivation, also known as slash and burn cultivation, involves clearing of natural forest cover to grow crops. Once the fertility if the soil decreases, a new location is chosen and the same process is followed. This has led to loss of vast forest cover in the under-developed agriculture countries. Another direct cause of deforestation is the conversion of natural forest to plantations of economically viable trees such as rubber, oil palm, etc.
What Is Deforestation? Deforestation is the removal of trees from the earth. It is destroying of trees and forest by accidental or by natural cause. It act of deforestation happening all over the world but the place where it is happening the most is amazon forest. The negative effects of this include the loss of vegetation, climate change, flooding, global warming and much more.
Deforestation is the action or process of cutting down the trees in a large area or the destruction of forests. There are many causes of the deforestation such as both illegal and legal logging, farming activities as well as poor land management. Deforestation has brought negative impacts too, which includes the damage to land, the extinction of plants and soil erosion. This essay will discuss the causes and effects of deforestation. First of all, legal and illegal logging including farming activities are the causes of deforestation (McLeish, 2007).
Firstly, population growth is a major factor of deforestation because the demand for basic commodities such as food and shelter is likely to increase. Deforestation begins with human settlement escalating in near-forest areas which they produce their own food through subsistence agriculture. The use of traditional farming methods, the slash and burn technique by small-scale farmers is deemed destructive as suggested by Golden and Miller (1994, p. 14). This can be dangerous because these fires could expand and burn the remaining forested territories that they border and the affected soil is no longer suitable for farming. For instance, there was 62 000 square per kilometer of forest in Madagascar, but the current forest cover is only 10 000 square per kilometer (RAN, 1999).
In adapting to a changed environmental condition, including the settlement of human affecting and reducing other living things, some vectors change from primary zoophilllic to primary anthrophillic.the following are the environmental changes that potentially affect ways of vectors and parasites multiply, grow and transmit a disease. (1.1) 2.1 deforestation Deforestation is one of the major changes that can affect parasitic vector population . (1) The land cover changes and clearing of forests are the major drivers of to increase the temperature of highlands and accelerates the rate of a multiplication a vector and also enhancing sporogoy development rate . (m 2day) 2.2 road construction When roads are constructed it provides access for new humans, animals, vectors and parasite population (1). Construction of roads to previously non accessible forested area s can lead to erosion and can create stagnant water by blocking the flow of streams which can serve as vector multiplication
SOIL EROSION I. INTRODUCTION Soil erosion is one of the most devastating environmental disasters which always happen all over the globe and it is caused by unavoidable natural phenomenon factors such as climatic factor, physical characteristics of soil and cover and management factor and the solution on how to reduce soil erosion which are managing soil surfaces, improving organic matter and making grasses waterway. II. BODY Factor of Soil Erosion A. One of the reasons that contribute to this soil erosion problem is climatic factor.
The most dangerous pollutants are bioactive chemicals, due to which the micro-organisms of climate and soil are being destroyed resulting in decreased quality of soil. Toxic chemicals enter the diet chain, so that they reach up to the top