The soot, which is removed from the heating surfaces, will be blown out with the flue gases. If the boiler is equipped with a dust collector, it will trap the soot. Otherwise, the soot will be ejected in to the outside air through the chimney stack. C.Drawback of Existing System The traditional and manually controlled methods available for the removal of ash deposition at present are the following 1. To blow away the ash fouling, high pressure and high temperature steam is used.
Dilution process: By incorporating inert substances (e.g. fillers) and additives that release inert gases, water or Carbon dioxide during decomposition, and dilute the fuel in the solid and gaseous phases so that the lower ignition limit of the gas mixture is not exceeded, e.g. aluminium hydroxide leaving water [26,13,20]. Fire retardation by Chemical action The most significant chemical reactions that interfere with the combustion process take place either in the solid and gaseous phases: Reaction in the gaseous
Sedimentation affects all fire sprinkler piping regardless of which material is used. Scale build- up and sedimentation is caused by magnesium ad calcium precipitation within the pipes. This can be easily avoided by a good filtration process. CPVC pipes get charred and produces toxic gases when exposed to fire. Steel is not affected in this manner by exposure to fire.
They help to: Create awareness of hazards and risks. Identify who may be at risk (employees, cleaners, visitors, contractors, the public, etc). Determine if existing control measures are adequate or if more should be done. Prevent injuries or illnesses when done at the design or planning stage. Prioritize hazards and control measures.
A fire needs oxygen to start and increase continuously. The extinguisher use: Carbon Dioxide fire extinguishers: the fire extinguish by Carbon Dioxide fire extinguishers to taking away the oxygen element of the fire triangle and also be decrease the heat with a very cold discharge. HEAT: The second element in the fire triangle is heat, which is may be the most essential of fire elements. A fire cannot ignite unless it has a certain amount of heat. The extinguisher use: Water and Foam fire extinguishers: The fire extinguish by Water and Foam to taking away the heat element of the fire.
==> Burned to produce water or steam in a boiler (Thermal Use). ==> Burned for electricity production either in a gas turbine or in internal combustion engine. As in the chemical synthesis process generally requires the use of a medium calorific value gas (MCV) (non nitrogen diluted) with the minimum contaminants for optimal conversion o chemicals by Paisley et al., 1994. If the product gas is use for the electricity generation, the gas needs to be very clean from the char-particles, tar and ash before entering a gas turbine or a combustion engine. Still the hot outlet gas from the gas turbine can be used to produce steam for a steam turbine, as the process is being integrated to the Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC).
The systems are the Control Mode System (Conventional) and Early Suppression Fast Response (ESFR) System. (An Introduction to Early Suppression Fast Response Sprinklers, 2008). One major different between this two sprinkler system is their design intent. Control mode sprinkler systems focused more on controlling the fire until the fuel source is depleted or the fire is extinguished by the fire-fighter. The fire is done by cooling the air temperature of the ceiling-level, reducing the fire heat release rate and pre-wetting surrounding combustibles.
The electrical hazards result from electric extensions and outlet cords getting overloaded and this causes a risk of occurrence of fires both at work and at homes. Using blankets or smothering the fire using nonconductors can be used to extinguish the fires. Class D hazards and fires involve combustible metals. They are metals ending with the letters “um. They can be potassium, magnesium, aluminum etc.
Fire can be prevented by controlling or removing one or more components of fire There are two types of combustion: Complete and Incomplete Combustion Complete Combustion: Complete combustion is when the substance is completely burned and only carbon dioxide and water remain. The reactant burns in oxygen, producing a limited number of products. When a hydrocarbon burns in oxygen, the reaction will primarily yield carbon dioxide and water Incomplete Combustion: It occurs when the supply of air or oxygen is limited. Water is still produced, but carbon monoxide and carbon are produced instead of carbon dioxide. Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas it can harm the human body.
He/She will be responsible to review the plan from beginning to ending and analyse how and what the change can influence the original plan. Aspects of cost, benefits, timeliness, resources, influence on other new or existing projects, normal operation and risk have to be taken into account. In project management, changes in projects can cause substantial adjustment to the contract duration time, total direct and indirect cost, or both (Tiong 1990; Ibbs 1997; Ibbs et al. 1998). Common project planning tools such as risk analysis can be used to reduce the destructive consequences of change, because they give insights and predictions to identify possible conflicts (Mallak et al.